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* [Tarantool-patches] [PATCH v2 0/2] Encapsulate MEM type changing and checking
@ 2021-02-13 15:38 Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches
  2021-02-13 15:38 ` [Tarantool-patches] [PATCH v2 1/2] sql: Initialize MEM in sqlVdbeAllocUnpackedRecord() Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches
  2021-02-13 15:38 ` [Tarantool-patches] [PATCH v2 2/2] sql: encapsulate setting type checking of MEM Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 3+ messages in thread
From: Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches @ 2021-02-13 15:38 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: s.ostanevich, tsafin; +Cc: tarantool-patches

This patch-set encapsulates type changing and checking for MEM. This is done to
make easier for us to introduce new rules for implicit and explicit type casting
and new types in SQL.

https://github.com/tarantool/tarantool/issues/4470
https://github.com/tarantool/tarantool/tree/imeevma/gh-4470-encapsule-type-setting

Changes in v2:
  - Squashed almost all patches.
  - Review fixes.

Mergen Imeev (2):
  sql: Initialize MEM in sqlVdbeAllocUnpackedRecord()
  sql: encapsulate setting type checking of MEM

 src/box/sql/func.c      |   2 +-
 src/box/sql/vdbe.c      | 529 ++++++++++++++++++----------------------
 src/box/sql/vdbeInt.h   | 204 ++++++++++++++++
 src/box/sql/vdbeapi.c   |  53 ++--
 src/box/sql/vdbeaux.c   | 273 ++++++++++-----------
 src/box/sql/vdbemem.c   | 116 +++++++++
 src/box/sql/vdbesort.c  |   9 +-
 src/box/sql/vdbetrace.c |  12 +-
 8 files changed, 715 insertions(+), 483 deletions(-)

-- 
2.25.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 3+ messages in thread

* [Tarantool-patches] [PATCH v2 1/2] sql: Initialize MEM in sqlVdbeAllocUnpackedRecord()
  2021-02-13 15:38 [Tarantool-patches] [PATCH v2 0/2] Encapsulate MEM type changing and checking Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches
@ 2021-02-13 15:38 ` Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches
  2021-02-13 15:38 ` [Tarantool-patches] [PATCH v2 2/2] sql: encapsulate setting type checking of MEM Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 3+ messages in thread
From: Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches @ 2021-02-13 15:38 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: s.ostanevich, tsafin; +Cc: tarantool-patches

This patch adds initialization for newly created MEM objects in
sqlVdbeAllocUnpackedRecord(). Changing a MEM without being
initialized may give us unexpected result.

Part of #4470
---
 src/box/sql/vdbeaux.c | 2 ++
 1 file changed, 2 insertions(+)

diff --git a/src/box/sql/vdbeaux.c b/src/box/sql/vdbeaux.c
index 91b64316e..5c2706e49 100644
--- a/src/box/sql/vdbeaux.c
+++ b/src/box/sql/vdbeaux.c
@@ -2329,6 +2329,8 @@ sqlVdbeAllocUnpackedRecord(struct sql *db, struct key_def *key_def)
 	if (!p)
 		return 0;
 	p->aMem = (Mem *) & ((char *)p)[ROUND8(sizeof(UnpackedRecord))];
+	for (uint32_t i = 0; i < key_def->part_count + 1; ++i)
+		sqlVdbeMemInit(&p->aMem[i], sql_get(), MEM_Null);
 	p->key_def = key_def;
 	p->nField = key_def->part_count + 1;
 	return p;
-- 
2.25.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 3+ messages in thread

* [Tarantool-patches] [PATCH v2 2/2] sql: encapsulate setting type checking of MEM
  2021-02-13 15:38 [Tarantool-patches] [PATCH v2 0/2] Encapsulate MEM type changing and checking Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches
  2021-02-13 15:38 ` [Tarantool-patches] [PATCH v2 1/2] sql: Initialize MEM in sqlVdbeAllocUnpackedRecord() Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches
@ 2021-02-13 15:38 ` Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 3+ messages in thread
From: Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches @ 2021-02-13 15:38 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: s.ostanevich, tsafin; +Cc: tarantool-patches

This patch encapsulates checking the MEM type and setting a new MEM
value.

Part of #4470
---
 src/box/sql/func.c      |   2 +-
 src/box/sql/vdbe.c      | 529 ++++++++++++++++++----------------------
 src/box/sql/vdbeInt.h   | 204 ++++++++++++++++
 src/box/sql/vdbeapi.c   |  53 ++--
 src/box/sql/vdbeaux.c   | 273 ++++++++++-----------
 src/box/sql/vdbemem.c   | 116 +++++++++
 src/box/sql/vdbesort.c  |   9 +-
 src/box/sql/vdbetrace.c |  12 +-
 8 files changed, 714 insertions(+), 484 deletions(-)

diff --git a/src/box/sql/func.c b/src/box/sql/func.c
index f15d27051..3fd1cabec 100644
--- a/src/box/sql/func.c
+++ b/src/box/sql/func.c
@@ -94,7 +94,7 @@ vdbemem_alloc_on_region(uint32_t count)
 	}
 	memset(ret, 0, count * sizeof(*ret));
 	for (uint32_t i = 0; i < count; i++) {
-		sqlVdbeMemInit(&ret[i], sql_get(), MEM_Null);
+		mem_init(&ret[i]);
 		assert(memIsValid(&ret[i]));
 	}
 	return ret;
diff --git a/src/box/sql/vdbe.c b/src/box/sql/vdbe.c
index 3b3b1f01d..5089fff18 100644
--- a/src/box/sql/vdbe.c
+++ b/src/box/sql/vdbe.c
@@ -116,7 +116,7 @@ int sql_max_blobsize = 0;
 static void
 updateMaxBlobsize(Mem *p)
 {
-	if ((p->flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob))!=0 && p->n>sql_max_blobsize) {
+	if (mem_is_varstring(p) && p->n>sql_max_blobsize) {
 		sql_max_blobsize = p->n;
 	}
 }
@@ -185,7 +185,7 @@ vdbeTakeBranch(int iSrcLine, u8 I, u8 M)
  * already. Return non-zero if a malloc() fails.
  */
 #define Stringify(P)						\
-	if(((P)->flags&(MEM_Str|MEM_Blob))==0 && sqlVdbeMemStringify(P)) \
+	if(!mem_is_varstring(P) && sqlVdbeMemStringify(P)) \
 	{ goto no_mem; }
 
 /*
@@ -260,7 +260,7 @@ allocateCursor(
 int
 mem_apply_numeric_type(struct Mem *record)
 {
-	if ((record->flags & MEM_Str) == 0)
+	if (!mem_is_string(record))
 		return -1;
 	int64_t integer_value;
 	bool is_neg;
@@ -311,17 +311,17 @@ mem_apply_numeric_type(struct Mem *record)
 static int
 mem_apply_type(struct Mem *record, enum field_type type)
 {
-	if ((record->flags & MEM_Null) != 0)
+	if (mem_is_null(record))
 		return 0;
 	assert(type < field_type_MAX);
 	switch (type) {
 	case FIELD_TYPE_INTEGER:
 	case FIELD_TYPE_UNSIGNED:
-		if ((record->flags & (MEM_Bool | MEM_Blob)) != 0)
+		if (mem_is_bool(record) || mem_is_binary(record))
 			return -1;
-		if ((record->flags & MEM_UInt) == MEM_UInt)
+		if (mem_is_pos_int(record))
 			return 0;
-		if ((record->flags & MEM_Real) == MEM_Real) {
+		if (mem_is_double(record)) {
 			double d = record->u.r;
 			if (d >= 0) {
 				if (double_compare_uint64(d, UINT64_MAX,
@@ -337,29 +337,29 @@ mem_apply_type(struct Mem *record, enum field_type type)
 			}
 			return 0;
 		}
-		if ((record->flags & MEM_Str) != 0) {
+		if (mem_is_string(record)) {
 			bool is_neg;
 			int64_t i;
 			if (sql_atoi64(record->z, &i, &is_neg, record->n) != 0)
 				return -1;
 			mem_set_int(record, i, is_neg);
 		}
-		if ((record->flags & MEM_Int) == MEM_Int) {
+		if (mem_is_neg_int(record)) {
 			if (type == FIELD_TYPE_UNSIGNED)
 				return -1;
 			return 0;
 		}
 		return 0;
 	case FIELD_TYPE_BOOLEAN:
-		if ((record->flags & MEM_Bool) == MEM_Bool)
+		if (mem_is_bool(record))
 			return 0;
 		return -1;
 	case FIELD_TYPE_NUMBER:
-		if ((record->flags & (MEM_Real | MEM_Int | MEM_UInt)) != 0)
+		if (mem_is_number(record))
 			return 0;
 		return sqlVdbeMemRealify(record);
 	case FIELD_TYPE_DOUBLE:
-		if ((record->flags & MEM_Real) != 0)
+		if (mem_is_double(record))
 			return 0;
 		return sqlVdbeMemRealify(record);
 	case FIELD_TYPE_STRING:
@@ -368,34 +368,24 @@ mem_apply_type(struct Mem *record, enum field_type type)
 		 * an integer or real representation (BLOB and
 		 * NULL do not get converted).
 		 */
-		if ((record->flags & MEM_Str) == 0 &&
-		    (record->flags & (MEM_Real | MEM_Int | MEM_UInt)) != 0)
+		if (!mem_is_string(record) && mem_is_number(record))
 			sqlVdbeMemStringify(record);
-		record->flags &= ~(MEM_Real | MEM_Int | MEM_UInt);
 		return 0;
 	case FIELD_TYPE_VARBINARY:
-		if ((record->flags & MEM_Blob) == 0)
+		if (!mem_is_binary(record))
 			return -1;
 		return 0;
 	case FIELD_TYPE_SCALAR:
 		/* Can't cast MAP and ARRAY to scalar types. */
-		if ((record->flags & MEM_Subtype) != 0 &&
-		    record->subtype == SQL_SUBTYPE_MSGPACK) {
-			assert(mp_typeof(*record->z) == MP_MAP ||
-			       mp_typeof(*record->z) == MP_ARRAY);
+		if (mem_is_map(record) || mem_is_array(record))
 			return -1;
-		}
 		return 0;
 	case FIELD_TYPE_MAP:
-		if ((record->flags & MEM_Subtype) != 0 &&
-		    record->subtype == SQL_SUBTYPE_MSGPACK &&
-		    mp_typeof(*record->z) == MP_MAP)
+		if (mem_is_map(record))
 			return 0;
 		return -1;
 	case FIELD_TYPE_ARRAY:
-		if ((record->flags & MEM_Subtype) != 0 &&
-		    record->subtype == SQL_SUBTYPE_MSGPACK &&
-		    mp_typeof(*record->z) == MP_ARRAY)
+		if (mem_is_array(record))
 			return 0;
 		return -1;
 	case FIELD_TYPE_ANY:
@@ -442,12 +432,12 @@ mem_is_type_compatible(struct Mem *mem, enum field_type type)
 static int
 mem_convert_to_double(struct Mem *mem)
 {
-	if ((mem->flags & MEM_Real) != 0)
+	if (mem_is_double(mem))
 		return 0;
-	if ((mem->flags & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt)) == 0)
+	if (!mem_is_integer(mem))
 		return -1;
 	double d;
-	if ((mem->flags & MEM_Int) != 0)
+	if (mem_is_neg_int(mem))
 		d = (double)mem->u.i;
 	else
 		d = (double)mem->u.u;
@@ -464,11 +454,11 @@ mem_convert_to_double(struct Mem *mem)
 static int
 mem_convert_to_unsigned(struct Mem *mem)
 {
-	if ((mem->flags & MEM_UInt) != 0)
+	if (mem_is_pos_int(mem))
 		return 0;
-	if ((mem->flags & MEM_Int) != 0)
+	if (mem_is_neg_int(mem))
 		return -1;
-	if ((mem->flags & MEM_Real) == 0)
+	if (!mem_is_double(mem))
 		return -1;
 	double d = mem->u.r;
 	if (d < 0.0 || d >= (double)UINT64_MAX)
@@ -486,9 +476,9 @@ mem_convert_to_unsigned(struct Mem *mem)
 static int
 mem_convert_to_integer(struct Mem *mem)
 {
-	if ((mem->flags & (MEM_UInt | MEM_Int)) != 0)
+	if (mem_is_integer(mem))
 		return 0;
-	if ((mem->flags & MEM_Real) == 0)
+	if (!mem_is_double(mem))
 		return -1;
 	double d = mem->u.r;
 	if (d >= (double)UINT64_MAX || d < (double)INT64_MIN)
@@ -525,36 +515,33 @@ mem_convert_to_numeric(struct Mem *mem, enum field_type type)
 /*
  * pMem currently only holds a string type (or maybe a BLOB that we can
  * interpret as a string if we want to).  Compute its corresponding
- * numeric type, if has one.  Set the pMem->u.r and pMem->u.i fields
- * accordingly.
+ * numeric type, if has one.  Set the tmp_mem accordingly.
  */
-static u16 SQL_NOINLINE computeNumericType(Mem *pMem)
+static struct Mem *
+SQL_NOINLINE computeNumericType(struct Mem *pMem, struct Mem *tmp_mem)
 {
-	assert((pMem->flags & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt | MEM_Real)) == 0);
-	assert((pMem->flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob))!=0);
-	if (sqlAtoF(pMem->z, &pMem->u.r, pMem->n)==0)
-		return 0;
+	assert(!mem_is_number(pMem));
+	assert(mem_is_varstring(pMem));
+	double r;
+	if (sqlAtoF(pMem->z, &r, pMem->n) == 0)
+		return pMem;
 	bool is_neg;
-	if (sql_atoi64(pMem->z, (int64_t *) &pMem->u.i, &is_neg, pMem->n) == 0)
-		return is_neg ? MEM_Int : MEM_UInt;
-	return MEM_Real;
+	int64_t i;
+	if (sql_atoi64(pMem->z, &i, &is_neg, pMem->n) == 0)
+		mem_set_int(tmp_mem, i, is_neg);
+	else
+		mem_set_double(tmp_mem, r);
+	return tmp_mem;
 }
 
-/*
- * Return the numeric type for pMem, either MEM_Int or MEM_Real or both or
- * none.
- *
- * Unlike mem_apply_numeric_type(), this routine does not modify pMem->flags.
- * But it does set pMem->u.r and pMem->u.i appropriately.
- */
-static u16 numericType(Mem *pMem)
+/** Return adress of the mem that contains numeric value for pMem. */
+static struct Mem *
+numericType(struct Mem *pMem, struct Mem *tmp_mem)
 {
-	if ((pMem->flags & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt | MEM_Real)) != 0)
-		return pMem->flags & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt | MEM_Real);
-	if (pMem->flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob)) {
-		return computeNumericType(pMem);
+	if (mem_is_varstring(pMem)) {
+		return computeNumericType(pMem, tmp_mem);
 	}
-	return 0;
+	return pMem;
 }
 
 #ifdef SQL_DEBUG
@@ -568,7 +555,7 @@ sqlVdbeMemPrettyPrint(Mem *pMem, char *zBuf)
 	char *zCsr = zBuf;
 	int f = pMem->flags;
 
-	if (f&MEM_Blob) {
+	if (mem_is_binary(pMem)) {
 		int i;
 		char c;
 		if (f & MEM_Dyn) {
@@ -604,7 +591,7 @@ sqlVdbeMemPrettyPrint(Mem *pMem, char *zBuf)
 			zCsr += sqlStrlen30(zCsr);
 		}
 		*zCsr = '\0';
-	} else if (f & MEM_Str) {
+	} else if (mem_is_string(pMem)) {
 		int j, k;
 		zBuf[0] = ' ';
 		if (f & MEM_Dyn) {
@@ -646,19 +633,17 @@ sqlVdbeMemPrettyPrint(Mem *pMem, char *zBuf)
 static void
 memTracePrint(Mem *p)
 {
-	if (p->flags & MEM_Undefined) {
+	if (mem_is_undefined(p)) {
 		printf(" undefined");
-	} else if (p->flags & MEM_Null) {
+	} else if (mem_is_null(p)) {
 		printf(" NULL");
-	} else if ((p->flags & (MEM_Int|MEM_Str))==(MEM_Int|MEM_Str)) {
-		printf(" si:%lld", p->u.i);
-	} else if (p->flags & MEM_Int) {
+	} else if (mem_is_neg_int(p)) {
 		printf(" i:%lld", p->u.i);
-	} else if (p->flags & MEM_UInt) {
+	} else if (mem_is_pos_int(p)) {
 		printf(" u:%"PRIu64"", p->u.u);
-	} else if (p->flags & MEM_Real) {
+	} else if (mem_is_double(p)) {
 		printf(" r:%g", p->u.r);
-	} else if (p->flags & MEM_Bool) {
+	} else if (mem_is_bool(p)) {
 		printf(" bool:%s", SQL_TOKEN_BOOLEAN(p->u.b));
 	} else {
 		char zBuf[200];
@@ -700,8 +685,7 @@ vdbe_prepare_null_out(struct Vdbe *v, int n)
 	assert(n <= (v->nMem + 1 - v->nCursor));
 	struct Mem *out = &v->aMem[n];
 	memAboutToChange(v, out);
-	sqlVdbeMemSetNull(out);
-	out->field_type = field_type_MAX;
+	mem_set_null(out);
 	return out;
 }
 
@@ -731,35 +715,32 @@ char *
 mem_type_to_str(const struct Mem *p)
 {
 	assert(p != NULL);
-	switch (p->flags & MEM_PURE_TYPE_MASK) {
-	case MEM_Null:
+	if (mem_is_null(p))
 		return "NULL";
-	case MEM_Str:
+	if (mem_is_string(p))
 		return "text";
-	case MEM_Int:
+	if (mem_is_neg_int(p))
 		return "integer";
-	case MEM_UInt:
+	if (mem_is_pos_int(p))
 		return "unsigned";
-	case MEM_Real:
+	if (mem_is_double(p))
 		return "real";
-	case MEM_Blob:
+	if (mem_is_binary(p))
 		return "varbinary";
-	case MEM_Bool:
-		return "boolean";
-	default:
-		unreachable();
-	}
+	assert(mem_is_bool(p));
+	return "boolean";
 }
 
 /* Allocate memory for internal VDBE structure on region. */
 static int
 vdbe_mem_alloc_blob_region(struct Mem *vdbe_mem, uint32_t size)
 {
-	vdbe_mem->n = size;
-	vdbe_mem->z = region_alloc(&fiber()->gc, size);
-	if (vdbe_mem->z == NULL)
+	char *buf = region_alloc(&fiber()->gc, size);
+	if (buf == NULL) {
+		diag_set(OutOfMemory, size, "region_alloc", "buf");
 		return -1;
-	vdbe_mem->flags = MEM_Ephem | MEM_Blob;
+	}
+	mem_set_bin(vdbe_mem, buf, size, MEM_Ephem, false);
 	assert(sqlVdbeCheckMemInvariants(vdbe_mem));
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -884,29 +865,20 @@ vdbe_field_ref_fetch(struct vdbe_field_ref *field_ref, uint32_t fieldno,
 	 * Wrap it in a blob verbatim.
 	 */
 	if (dest_mem->flags == 0) {
-		dest_mem->z = (char *) data;
-		dest_mem->n = vdbe_field_ref_fetch_data(field_ref,
-							fieldno + 1) - data;
-		dest_mem->flags = MEM_Blob | MEM_Ephem | MEM_Subtype;
-		dest_mem->subtype = SQL_SUBTYPE_MSGPACK;
+		uint32_t size = vdbe_field_ref_fetch_data(field_ref,
+							  fieldno + 1) - data;
+		if (mp_typeof(*data) == MP_MAP)
+			mem_set_map(dest_mem, (char *)data, size, MEM_Ephem);
+		else
+			mem_set_array(dest_mem, (char *)data, size, MEM_Ephem);
 	}
-	/*
-	 * Add 0 termination (at most for strings)
-	 * Not sure why do we check MEM_Ephem
-	 */
-	if ((dest_mem->flags & (MEM_Ephem | MEM_Str)) ==
-	    (MEM_Ephem | MEM_Str)) {
-		int len = dest_mem->n;
-		if (dest_mem->szMalloc < len + 1) {
-			if (sqlVdbeMemGrow(dest_mem, len + 1, 1) != 0)
-				return -1;
+	if (mem_is_string(dest_mem) && (dest_mem->flags & MEM_Ephem) != 0) {
+		if (dest_mem->n > 0) {
+			mem_set_str(dest_mem, dest_mem->z, dest_mem->n, 0,
+				    (dest_mem->flags & MEM_Term) != 0);
 		} else {
-			dest_mem->z =
-				memcpy(dest_mem->zMalloc, dest_mem->z, len);
-			dest_mem->flags &= ~MEM_Ephem;
+			mem_set_str(dest_mem, "", 0, MEM_Static, true);
 		}
-		dest_mem->z[len] = 0;
-		dest_mem->flags |= MEM_Term;
 	}
 	UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(dest_mem);
 	dest_mem->field_type = vdbe_field_ref_fetch_type(field_ref, fieldno);
@@ -1129,9 +1101,9 @@ case OP_Gosub: {            /* jump */
  */
 case OP_Return: {           /* in1 */
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-	assert(pIn1->flags==MEM_UInt);
+	assert(mem_is_pos_int(pIn1));
 	pOp = &aOp[pIn1->u.u];
-	pIn1->flags = MEM_Undefined;
+	mem_set_undefined(pIn1);
 	break;
 }
 
@@ -1168,13 +1140,13 @@ case OP_InitCoroutine: {     /* jump */
 case OP_EndCoroutine: {           /* in1 */
 	VdbeOp *pCaller;
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-	assert(pIn1->flags == MEM_UInt);
+	assert(mem_is_pos_int(pIn1));
 	assert(pIn1->u.u < (uint64_t) p->nOp);
 	pCaller = &aOp[pIn1->u.u];
 	assert(pCaller->opcode==OP_Yield);
 	assert(pCaller->p2>=0 && pCaller->p2<p->nOp);
 	pOp = &aOp[pCaller->p2 - 1];
-	pIn1->flags = MEM_Undefined;
+	mem_set_undefined(pIn1);
 	break;
 }
 
@@ -1342,10 +1314,8 @@ case OP_String8: {         /* same as TK_STRING, out2 */
  */
 case OP_String: {          /* out2 */
 	assert(pOp->p4.z!=0);
-	pOut = vdbe_prepare_null_out(p, pOp->p2);
-	pOut->flags = MEM_Str|MEM_Static|MEM_Term;
-	pOut->z = pOp->p4.z;
-	pOut->n = pOp->p1;
+	pOut = &p->aMem[pOp->p2];
+	mem_set_str(pOut, pOp->p4.z, pOp->p1, MEM_Static, true);
 	UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pOut);
 	break;
 }
@@ -1364,19 +1334,17 @@ case OP_String: {          /* out2 */
  */
 case OP_Null: {           /* out2 */
 	int cnt;
-	u16 nullFlag;
 	pOut = vdbe_prepare_null_out(p, pOp->p2);
 	cnt = pOp->p3-pOp->p2;
 	assert(pOp->p3<=(p->nMem+1 - p->nCursor));
-	pOut->flags = nullFlag = pOp->p1 ? (MEM_Null|MEM_Cleared) : MEM_Null;
-	pOut->n = 0;
+	if (pOp->p1)
+		pOut->flags |= MEM_Cleared;
 	while( cnt>0) {
 		pOut++;
 		memAboutToChange(p, pOut);
-		sqlVdbeMemSetNull(pOut);
-		pOut->flags = nullFlag;
-		pOut->field_type = field_type_MAX;
-		pOut->n = 0;
+		mem_set_null(pOut);
+		if (pOp->p1)
+			pOut->flags |= MEM_Cleared;
 		cnt--;
 	}
 	break;
@@ -1390,12 +1358,13 @@ case OP_Null: {           /* out2 */
  */
 case OP_Blob: {                /* out2 */
 	assert(pOp->p1 <= SQL_MAX_LENGTH);
-	pOut = vdbe_prepare_null_out(p, pOp->p2);
-	sqlVdbeMemSetStr(pOut, pOp->p4.z, pOp->p1, 0, 0);
-	if (pOp->p3!=0) {
-		pOut->flags |= MEM_Subtype;
-		pOut->subtype = pOp->p3;
-	}
+	pOut = &p->aMem[pOp->p2];
+	if (pOp->p3 == 0)
+		mem_set_bin(pOut, pOp->p4.z, pOp->p1, MEM_Static, false);
+	else if (mp_typeof(*pOp->p4.z) == MP_MAP)
+		mem_set_map(pOut, pOp->p4.z, pOp->p1, MEM_Static);
+	else
+		mem_set_array(pOut, pOp->p4.z, pOp->p1, MEM_Static);
 	UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pOut);
 	break;
 }
@@ -1547,7 +1516,7 @@ case OP_ResultRow: {
 		assert(memIsValid(&pMem[i]));
 		Deephemeralize(&pMem[i]);
 		assert((pMem[i].flags & MEM_Ephem)==0
-		       || (pMem[i].flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob))==0);
+		       || !mem_is_varstring(&pMem[i]));
 		sqlVdbeMemNulTerminate(&pMem[i]);
 		REGISTER_TRACE(p, pOp->p1+i, &pMem[i]);
 	}
@@ -1587,7 +1556,7 @@ case OP_Concat: {           /* same as TK_CONCAT, in1, in2, out3 */
 	pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
 	pOut = vdbe_prepare_null_out(p, pOp->p3);
 	assert(pIn1!=pOut);
-	if ((pIn1->flags | pIn2->flags) & MEM_Null) {
+	if (mem_is_null(pIn1) || mem_is_null(pIn2)) {
 		/* Force NULL be of type STRING. */
 		pOut->field_type = FIELD_TYPE_STRING;
 		break;
@@ -1596,10 +1565,8 @@ case OP_Concat: {           /* same as TK_CONCAT, in1, in2, out3 */
 	 * Concatenation operation can be applied only to
 	 * strings and blobs.
 	 */
-	uint32_t str_type_p1 = pIn1->flags & (MEM_Blob | MEM_Str);
-	uint32_t str_type_p2 = pIn2->flags & (MEM_Blob | MEM_Str);
-	if (str_type_p1 == 0 || str_type_p2 == 0) {
-		char *inconsistent_type = str_type_p1 == 0 ?
+	if (!mem_is_varstring(pIn1) || !mem_is_varstring(pIn2)) {
+		char *inconsistent_type = !mem_is_varstring(pIn1) ?
 					  mem_type_to_str(pIn1) :
 					  mem_type_to_str(pIn2);
 		diag_set(ClientError, ER_INCONSISTENT_TYPES,
@@ -1608,7 +1575,7 @@ case OP_Concat: {           /* same as TK_CONCAT, in1, in2, out3 */
 	}
 
 	/* Moreover, both operands must be of the same type. */
-	if (str_type_p1 != str_type_p2) {
+	if (!mems_have_same_type(pIn1, pIn2)) {
 		diag_set(ClientError, ER_INCONSISTENT_TYPES,
 			 mem_type_to_str(pIn2), mem_type_to_str(pIn1));
 		goto abort_due_to_error;
@@ -1619,21 +1586,19 @@ case OP_Concat: {           /* same as TK_CONCAT, in1, in2, out3 */
 	if (nByte>db->aLimit[SQL_LIMIT_LENGTH]) {
 		goto too_big;
 	}
-	if (sqlVdbeMemGrow(pOut, (int)nByte+2, pOut==pIn2)) {
-		goto no_mem;
+	size_t svp = region_used(&fiber()->gc);
+	char *buf = region_alloc(&fiber()->gc, nByte);
+	if (buf == NULL) {
+		diag_set(OutOfMemory, nByte, "region_alloc", "buf");
+		goto abort_due_to_error;
 	}
-	if (pIn1->flags & MEM_Str)
-		MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Str);
+	memcpy(buf, pIn2->z, pIn2->n);
+	memcpy(&buf[pIn2->n], pIn1->z, pIn1->n);
+	if (mem_is_binary(pIn1))
+		mem_set_bin(pOut, buf, nByte, 0, false);
 	else
-		MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Blob);
-	if (pOut!=pIn2) {
-		memcpy(pOut->z, pIn2->z, pIn2->n);
-	}
-	memcpy(&pOut->z[pIn2->n], pIn1->z, pIn1->n);
-	pOut->z[nByte]=0;
-	pOut->z[nByte+1] = 0;
-	pOut->flags |= MEM_Term;
-	pOut->n = (int)nByte;
+		mem_set_str(pOut, buf, nByte, 0, false);
+	region_truncate(&fiber()->gc, svp);
 	UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pOut);
 	break;
 }
@@ -1681,27 +1646,26 @@ case OP_Subtract:              /* same as TK_MINUS, in1, in2, out3 */
 case OP_Multiply:              /* same as TK_STAR, in1, in2, out3 */
 case OP_Divide:                /* same as TK_SLASH, in1, in2, out3 */
 case OP_Remainder: {           /* same as TK_REM, in1, in2, out3 */
-	u32 flags;      /* Combined MEM_* flags from both inputs */
-	u16 type1;      /* Numeric type of left operand */
-	u16 type2;      /* Numeric type of right operand */
 	i64 iA;         /* Integer value of left operand */
 	i64 iB;         /* Integer value of right operand */
 	double rA;      /* Real value of left operand */
 	double rB;      /* Real value of right operand */
 
+	struct Mem tmp_mem1, tmp_mem2, *mem1, *mem2;
+	mem_init(&tmp_mem1);
+	mem_init(&tmp_mem2);
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-	type1 = numericType(pIn1);
+	mem1 = numericType(&aMem[pOp->p1], &tmp_mem1);
 	pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
-	type2 = numericType(pIn2);
+	mem2 = numericType(&aMem[pOp->p2], &tmp_mem2);
 	pOut = vdbe_prepare_null_out(p, pOp->p3);
-	flags = pIn1->flags | pIn2->flags;
-	if ((flags & MEM_Null)!=0) goto arithmetic_result_is_null;
-	if ((type1 & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt)) != 0 &&
-	    (type2 & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt)) != 0) {
-		iA = pIn1->u.i;
-		iB = pIn2->u.i;
-		bool is_lhs_neg = pIn1->flags & MEM_Int;
-		bool is_rhs_neg = pIn2->flags & MEM_Int;
+	if (mem_is_null(mem1) || mem_is_null(mem2))
+		goto arithmetic_result_is_null;
+	if (mem_is_integer(mem1) && mem_is_integer(mem2)) {
+		iA = mem1->u.i;
+		iB = mem2->u.i;
+		bool is_lhs_neg = mem_is_neg_int(pIn1);
+		bool is_rhs_neg = mem_is_neg_int(pIn2);
 		bool is_res_neg;
 		switch( pOp->opcode) {
 		case OP_Add: {
@@ -1752,7 +1716,7 @@ case OP_Remainder: {           /* same as TK_REM, in1, in2, out3 */
 				 sql_value_to_diag_str(pIn2), "numeric");
 			goto abort_due_to_error;
 		}
-		assert(((type1 | type2) & MEM_Real) != 0);
+		assert(mem_is_double(mem1) || mem_is_double(mem2));
 		switch( pOp->opcode) {
 		case OP_Add:         rB += rA;       break;
 		case OP_Subtract:    rB -= rA;       break;
@@ -1908,7 +1872,7 @@ case OP_BuiltinFunction: {
 		goto abort_due_to_error;
 
 	/* Copy the result of the function into register P3 */
-	if (pOut->flags & (MEM_Str|MEM_Blob)) {
+	if (mem_is_varstring(pOut)) {
 		if (sqlVdbeMemTooBig(pCtx->pOut)) goto too_big;
 	}
 
@@ -1967,7 +1931,7 @@ case OP_FunctionByName: {
 	 * Copy the result of the function invocation into
 	 * register P3.
 	 */
-	if ((pOut->flags & (MEM_Str | MEM_Blob)) != 0)
+	if (mem_is_varstring(pOut))
 		if (sqlVdbeMemTooBig(pOut)) goto too_big;
 
 	REGISTER_TRACE(p, pOp->p3, pOut);
@@ -2017,7 +1981,7 @@ case OP_ShiftRight: {           /* same as TK_RSHIFT, in1, in2, out3 */
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
 	pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
 	pOut = vdbe_prepare_null_out(p, pOp->p3);
-	if ((pIn1->flags | pIn2->flags) & MEM_Null) {
+	if (mem_is_null(pIn1) || mem_is_null(pIn2)) {
 		/* Force NULL be of type INTEGER. */
 		pOut->field_type = FIELD_TYPE_INTEGER;
 		break;
@@ -2076,7 +2040,7 @@ case OP_ShiftRight: {           /* same as TK_RSHIFT, in1, in2, out3 */
 case OP_AddImm: {            /* in1 */
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
 	memAboutToChange(p, pIn1);
-	assert((pIn1->flags & MEM_UInt) != 0 && pOp->p2 >= 0);
+	assert(mem_is_pos_int(pIn1) && pOp->p2 >= 0);
 	pIn1->u.u += pOp->p2;
 	break;
 }
@@ -2090,9 +2054,9 @@ case OP_AddImm: {            /* in1 */
  */
 case OP_MustBeInt: {            /* jump, in1 */
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-	if ((pIn1->flags & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt)) == 0) {
+	if (!mem_is_integer(pIn1)) {
 		mem_apply_type(pIn1, FIELD_TYPE_INTEGER);
-		if ((pIn1->flags & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt)) == 0) {
+		if (!mem_is_integer(pIn1)) {
 			if (pOp->p2==0) {
 				diag_set(ClientError, ER_SQL_TYPE_MISMATCH,
 					 sql_value_to_diag_str(pIn1), "integer");
@@ -2116,7 +2080,7 @@ case OP_MustBeInt: {            /* jump, in1 */
  */
 case OP_Realify: {                  /* in1 */
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-	if ((pIn1->flags & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt)) != 0) {
+	if (mem_is_integer(pIn1)) {
 		sqlVdbeMemRealify(pIn1);
 	}
 	break;
@@ -2248,16 +2212,10 @@ case OP_Le:               /* same as TK_LE, jump, in1, in3 */
 case OP_Gt:               /* same as TK_GT, jump, in1, in3 */
 case OP_Ge: {             /* same as TK_GE, jump, in1, in3 */
 	int res, res2;      /* Result of the comparison of pIn1 against pIn3 */
-	u32 flags1;         /* Copy of initial value of pIn1->flags */
-	u32 flags3;         /* Copy of initial value of pIn3->flags */
 
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
 	pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
-	flags1 = pIn1->flags;
-	flags3 = pIn3->flags;
-	enum field_type ft_p1 = pIn1->field_type;
-	enum field_type ft_p3 = pIn3->field_type;
-	if ((flags1 | flags3)&MEM_Null) {
+	if (mem_is_null(pIn1) || mem_is_null(pIn3)) {
 		/* One or both operands are NULL */
 		if (pOp->p5 & SQL_NULLEQ) {
 			/* If SQL_NULLEQ is set (which will only happen if the operator is
@@ -2265,10 +2223,10 @@ case OP_Ge: {             /* same as TK_GE, jump, in1, in3 */
 			 * or not both operands are null.
 			 */
 			assert(pOp->opcode==OP_Eq || pOp->opcode==OP_Ne);
-			assert((flags1 & MEM_Cleared)==0);
+			assert((pIn1->flags & MEM_Cleared)==0);
 			assert((pOp->p5 & SQL_JUMPIFNULL)==0);
-			if ((flags1&flags3&MEM_Null)!=0
-			    && (flags3&MEM_Cleared)==0
+			if (mem_is_null(pIn1) && mem_is_null(pIn3)
+			    && (pIn3->flags & MEM_Cleared)==0
 				) {
 				res = 0;  /* Operands are equal */
 			} else {
@@ -2291,22 +2249,22 @@ case OP_Ge: {             /* same as TK_GE, jump, in1, in3 */
 			}
 			break;
 		}
-	} else if (((flags1 | flags3) & MEM_Bool) != 0 ||
-		   ((flags1 | flags3) & MEM_Blob) != 0) {
+	} else if (mem_is_bool(pIn1) || mem_is_bool(pIn3) ||
+		   mem_is_binary(pIn1) || mem_is_binary(pIn3)) {
 		/*
 		 * If one of values is of type BOOLEAN or VARBINARY,
 		 * then the second one must be of the same type as
 		 * well. Otherwise an error is raised.
 		 */
-		int type_arg1 = flags1 & (MEM_Bool | MEM_Blob);
-		int type_arg3 = flags3 & (MEM_Bool | MEM_Blob);
-		if (type_arg1 != type_arg3) {
-			char *inconsistent_type = type_arg1 != 0 ?
+		if (!mems_have_same_type(pIn1, pIn3)) {
+			char *inconsistent_type = mem_is_bool(pIn1) ||
+						  mem_is_binary(pIn1) ?
 						  mem_type_to_str(pIn3) :
 						  mem_type_to_str(pIn1);
-			char *expected_type     = type_arg1 != 0 ?
-						  mem_type_to_str(pIn1) :
-						  mem_type_to_str(pIn3);
+			char *expected_type = mem_is_bool(pIn1) ||
+					      mem_is_binary(pIn1) ?
+					      mem_type_to_str(pIn1) :
+					      mem_type_to_str(pIn3);
 			diag_set(ClientError, ER_SQL_TYPE_MISMATCH,
 				 inconsistent_type, expected_type);
 			goto abort_due_to_error;
@@ -2314,18 +2272,25 @@ case OP_Ge: {             /* same as TK_GE, jump, in1, in3 */
 		res = sqlMemCompare(pIn3, pIn1, NULL);
 	} else {
 		enum field_type type = pOp->p5 & FIELD_TYPE_MASK;
+		struct Mem tmp_mem1, tmp_mem2, *mem1, *mem2;
+		mem1 = pIn1;
+		mem2 = pIn3;
 		if (sql_type_is_numeric(type)) {
-			if ((flags1 | flags3)&MEM_Str) {
-				if ((flags1 & MEM_Str) == MEM_Str) {
-					mem_apply_numeric_type(pIn1);
-					testcase( flags3!=pIn3->flags); /* Possible if pIn1==pIn3 */
-					flags3 = pIn3->flags;
+			if (mem_is_string(mem1) || mem_is_string(mem2)) {
+				if (mem_is_string(mem1)) {
+					mem_init(&tmp_mem1);
+					memcpy(&tmp_mem1, mem1, sizeof(*mem1));
+					mem1 = &tmp_mem1;
+					mem_apply_numeric_type(mem1);
 				}
-				if ((flags3 & MEM_Str) == MEM_Str) {
-					if (mem_apply_numeric_type(pIn3) != 0) {
+				if (mem_is_string(mem2)) {
+					mem_init(&tmp_mem2);
+					memcpy(&tmp_mem2, mem2, sizeof(*mem2));
+					mem2 = &tmp_mem2;
+					if (mem_apply_numeric_type(mem2) != 0) {
 						diag_set(ClientError,
 							 ER_SQL_TYPE_MISMATCH,
-							 sql_value_to_diag_str(pIn3),
+							 sql_value_to_diag_str(mem2),
 							 "numeric");
 						goto abort_due_to_error;
 					}
@@ -2335,27 +2300,29 @@ case OP_Ge: {             /* same as TK_GE, jump, in1, in3 */
 			/* Handle the common case of integer comparison here, as an
 			 * optimization, to avoid a call to sqlMemCompare()
 			 */
-			if ((pIn1->flags & pIn3->flags & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt)) != 0) {
-				if ((pIn1->flags & pIn3->flags & MEM_Int) != 0) {
-					if (pIn3->u.i > pIn1->u.i)
+			if (mem_is_integer(mem1) && mem_is_integer(mem2)) {
+				if (mem_is_neg_int(mem1) &&
+				    mem_is_neg_int(mem2)) {
+					if (mem2->u.i > mem1->u.i)
 						res = +1;
-					else if (pIn3->u.i < pIn1->u.i)
+					else if (mem2->u.i < mem1->u.i)
 						res = -1;
 					else
 						res = 0;
 					goto compare_op;
 				}
-				if ((pIn1->flags & pIn3->flags & MEM_UInt) != 0) {
-					if (pIn3->u.u > pIn1->u.u)
+				if (mem_is_pos_int(mem1) &&
+				    mem_is_pos_int(mem2)) {
+					if (mem2->u.u > mem1->u.u)
 						res = +1;
-					else if (pIn3->u.u < pIn1->u.u)
+					else if (mem2->u.u < mem1->u.u)
 						res = -1;
 					else
 						res = 0;
 					goto compare_op;
 				}
-				if ((pIn1->flags & MEM_UInt) != 0 &&
-				    (pIn3->flags & MEM_Int) != 0) {
+				if (mem_is_pos_int(mem1) &&
+				    mem_is_neg_int(mem2)) {
 					res = -1;
 					goto compare_op;
 				}
@@ -2363,26 +2330,22 @@ case OP_Ge: {             /* same as TK_GE, jump, in1, in3 */
 				goto compare_op;
 			}
 		} else if (type == FIELD_TYPE_STRING) {
-			if ((flags1 & MEM_Str) == 0 &&
-			    (flags1 & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt | MEM_Real)) != 0) {
-				testcase( pIn1->flags & MEM_Int);
-				testcase( pIn1->flags & MEM_Real);
-				sqlVdbeMemStringify(pIn1);
-				testcase( (flags1&MEM_Dyn) != (pIn1->flags&MEM_Dyn));
-				flags1 = (pIn1->flags & ~MEM_TypeMask) | (flags1 & MEM_TypeMask);
-				assert(pIn1!=pIn3);
+			if (mem_is_number(mem1)) {
+				mem_init(&tmp_mem1);
+				memcpy(&tmp_mem1, mem1, sizeof(*mem1));
+				mem1 = &tmp_mem1;
+				sqlVdbeMemStringify(mem1);
+				assert(mem1!=mem2);
 			}
-			if ((flags3 & MEM_Str) == 0 &&
-			    (flags3 & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt | MEM_Real)) != 0) {
-				testcase( pIn3->flags & MEM_Int);
-				testcase( pIn3->flags & MEM_Real);
-				sqlVdbeMemStringify(pIn3);
-				testcase( (flags3&MEM_Dyn) != (pIn3->flags&MEM_Dyn));
-				flags3 = (pIn3->flags & ~MEM_TypeMask) | (flags3 & MEM_TypeMask);
+			if (mem_is_number(mem2)) {
+				mem_init(&tmp_mem2);
+				memcpy(&tmp_mem2, mem2, sizeof(*mem2));
+				mem2 = &tmp_mem2;
+				sqlVdbeMemStringify(mem2);
 			}
 		}
 		assert(pOp->p4type==P4_COLLSEQ || pOp->p4.pColl==0);
-		res = sqlMemCompare(pIn3, pIn1, pOp->p4.pColl);
+		res = sqlMemCompare(mem2, mem1, pOp->p4.pColl);
 	}
 			compare_op:
 	switch( pOp->opcode) {
@@ -2394,14 +2357,6 @@ case OP_Ge: {             /* same as TK_GE, jump, in1, in3 */
 	default:       res2 = res>=0;     break;
 	}
 
-	/* Undo any changes made by mem_apply_type() to the input registers. */
-	assert((pIn1->flags & MEM_Dyn) == (flags1 & MEM_Dyn));
-	pIn1->flags = flags1;
-	pIn1->field_type = ft_p1;
-	assert((pIn3->flags & MEM_Dyn) == (flags3 & MEM_Dyn));
-	pIn3->flags = flags3;
-	pIn3->field_type = ft_p3;
-
 	if (pOp->p5 & SQL_STOREP2) {
 		iCompare = res;
 		res2 = res2!=0;  /* For this path res2 must be exactly 0 or 1 */
@@ -2585,9 +2540,9 @@ case OP_Or: {             /* same as TK_OR, in1, in2, out3 */
 	int v2;    /* Right operand: 0==FALSE, 1==TRUE, 2==UNKNOWN or NULL */
 
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-	if (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null) {
+	if (mem_is_null(pIn1)) {
 		v1 = 2;
-	} else if ((pIn1->flags & MEM_Bool) != 0) {
+	} else if (mem_is_bool(pIn1)) {
 		v1 = pIn1->u.b;
 	} else {
 		diag_set(ClientError, ER_SQL_TYPE_MISMATCH,
@@ -2595,9 +2550,9 @@ case OP_Or: {             /* same as TK_OR, in1, in2, out3 */
 		goto abort_due_to_error;
 	}
 	pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
-	if (pIn2->flags & MEM_Null) {
+	if (mem_is_null(pIn2)) {
 		v2 = 2;
-	} else if ((pIn2->flags & MEM_Bool) != 0) {
+	} else if (mem_is_bool(pIn2)) {
 		v2 = pIn2->u.b;
 	} else {
 		diag_set(ClientError, ER_SQL_TYPE_MISMATCH,
@@ -2628,8 +2583,8 @@ case OP_Not: {                /* same as TK_NOT, in1, out2 */
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
 	pOut = vdbe_prepare_null_out(p, pOp->p2);
 	pOut->field_type = FIELD_TYPE_BOOLEAN;
-	if ((pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0) {
-		if ((pIn1->flags & MEM_Bool) == 0) {
+	if (!mem_is_null(pIn1)) {
+		if (!mem_is_bool(pIn1)) {
 			diag_set(ClientError, ER_SQL_TYPE_MISMATCH,
 				 sql_value_to_diag_str(pIn1), "boolean");
 			goto abort_due_to_error;
@@ -2651,7 +2606,7 @@ case OP_BitNot: {             /* same as TK_BITNOT, in1, out2 */
 	pOut = vdbe_prepare_null_out(p, pOp->p2);
 	/* Force NULL be of type INTEGER. */
 	pOut->field_type = FIELD_TYPE_INTEGER;
-	if ((pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0) {
+	if (!mem_is_null(pIn1)) {
 		int64_t i;
 		bool is_neg;
 		if (sqlVdbeIntValue(pIn1, &i, &is_neg) != 0) {
@@ -2696,9 +2651,9 @@ case OP_If:                 /* jump, in1 */
 case OP_IfNot: {            /* jump, in1 */
 	int c;
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-	if (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null) {
+	if (mem_is_null(pIn1)) {
 		c = pOp->p3;
-	} else if ((pIn1->flags & MEM_Bool) != 0) {
+	} else if (mem_is_bool(pIn1)) {
 		c = pOp->opcode == OP_IfNot ? ! pIn1->u.b : pIn1->u.b;
 	} else {
 		diag_set(ClientError, ER_SQL_TYPE_MISMATCH,
@@ -2719,8 +2674,8 @@ case OP_IfNot: {            /* jump, in1 */
  */
 case OP_IsNull: {            /* same as TK_ISNULL, jump, in1 */
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-	VdbeBranchTaken( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)!=0, 2);
-	if ((pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)!=0) {
+	VdbeBranchTaken(mem_is_null(pIn1), 2);
+	if (mem_is_null(pIn1)) {
 		goto jump_to_p2;
 	}
 	break;
@@ -2733,8 +2688,8 @@ case OP_IsNull: {            /* same as TK_ISNULL, jump, in1 */
  */
 case OP_NotNull: {            /* same as TK_NOTNULL, jump, in1 */
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-	VdbeBranchTaken( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0, 2);
-	if ((pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0) {
+	VdbeBranchTaken(!mem_is_null(pIn1), 2);
+	if (!mem_is_null(pIn1)) {
 		goto jump_to_p2;
 	}
 	break;
@@ -2788,7 +2743,7 @@ case OP_Column: {
 			if (pC->eCurType==CURTYPE_PSEUDO) {
 				assert(pC->uc.pseudoTableReg>0);
 				pReg = &aMem[pC->uc.pseudoTableReg];
-				assert(pReg->flags & MEM_Blob);
+				assert(mem_is_binary(pReg));
 				assert(memIsValid(pReg));
 				vdbe_field_ref_prepare_data(&pC->field_ref,
 							    pReg->z, pReg->n);
@@ -2817,7 +2772,7 @@ case OP_Column: {
 	if (vdbe_field_ref_fetch(&pC->field_ref, p2, pDest) != 0)
 		goto abort_due_to_error;
 
-	if ((pDest->flags & MEM_Null) &&
+	if (mem_is_null(pDest) &&
 	    (uint32_t) p2  >= pC->field_ref.field_count &&
 	    default_val_mem != NULL) {
 		sqlVdbeMemShallowCopy(pDest, default_val_mem, MEM_Static);
@@ -2968,21 +2923,16 @@ case OP_MakeRecord: {
 	 * routine.
 	 */
 	if (bIsEphemeral) {
-		if (sqlVdbeMemClearAndResize(pOut, tuple_size) != 0)
+		if (mem_set_bin(pOut, tuple, tuple_size, 0, false) != 0)
 			goto abort_due_to_error;
-		pOut->flags = MEM_Blob;
-		pOut->n = tuple_size;
-		memcpy(pOut->z, tuple, tuple_size);
 		region_truncate(region, used);
 	} else {
 		/* Allocate memory on the region for the tuple
 		 * to be passed to Tarantool. Before that, make
 		 * sure previously allocated memory has gone.
 		 */
-		sqlVdbeMemRelease(pOut);
-		pOut->flags = MEM_Blob | MEM_Ephem;
-		pOut->n = tuple_size;
-		pOut->z = tuple;
+		if (mem_set_bin(pOut, tuple, tuple_size, MEM_Ephem, false) != 0)
+			goto abort_due_to_error;
 	}
 	assert(sqlVdbeCheckMemInvariants(pOut));
 	assert(pOp->p3>0 && pOp->p3<=(p->nMem+1 - p->nCursor));
@@ -3260,8 +3210,7 @@ case OP_OpenTEphemeral: {
 
 	if (space == NULL)
 		goto abort_due_to_error;
-	aMem[pOp->p1].u.p = space;
-	aMem[pOp->p1].flags = MEM_Ptr;
+	mem_set_ptr(&aMem[pOp->p1], (void *)space);
 	break;
 }
 
@@ -3490,18 +3439,18 @@ case OP_SeekGT: {       /* jump, in3 */
 		 * the seek, so convert it.
 		 */
 		pIn3 = &aMem[int_field];
-		if ((pIn3->flags & MEM_Null) != 0)
+		if (mem_is_null(pIn3))
 			goto skip_truncate;
-		if ((pIn3->flags & MEM_Str) != 0)
+		if (mem_is_string(pIn3))
 			mem_apply_numeric_type(pIn3);
 		int64_t i;
-		if ((pIn3->flags & MEM_Int) == MEM_Int) {
+		if (mem_is_neg_int(pIn3)) {
 			i = pIn3->u.i;
 			is_neg = true;
-		} else if ((pIn3->flags & MEM_UInt) == MEM_UInt) {
+		} else if (mem_is_pos_int(pIn3)) {
 			i = pIn3->u.u;
 			is_neg = false;
-		} else if ((pIn3->flags & MEM_Real) == MEM_Real) {
+		} else if (mem_is_double(pIn3)) {
 			if (pIn3->u.r > (double)INT64_MAX)
 				i = INT64_MAX;
 			else if (pIn3->u.r < (double)INT64_MIN)
@@ -3519,8 +3468,8 @@ case OP_SeekGT: {       /* jump, in3 */
 		/* If the P3 value could not be converted into an integer without
 		 * loss of information, then special processing is required...
 		 */
-		if ((pIn3->flags & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt)) == 0) {
-			if ((pIn3->flags & MEM_Real)==0) {
+		if (!mem_is_integer(pIn3)) {
+			if (!mem_is_double(pIn3)) {
 				/* If the P3 value cannot be converted into any kind of a number,
 				 * then the seek is not possible, so jump to P2
 				 */
@@ -3736,7 +3685,7 @@ case OP_Found: {        /* jump, in3 */
 	} else {
 		pFree = pIdxKey = sqlVdbeAllocUnpackedRecord(db, pC->key_def);
 		if (pIdxKey==0) goto no_mem;
-		assert(pIn3->flags & MEM_Blob );
+		assert(mem_is_binary(pIn3));
 		(void)ExpandBlob(pIn3);
 		sqlVdbeRecordUnpackMsgpack(pC->key_def,
 					       pIn3->z, pIdxKey);
@@ -3750,7 +3699,7 @@ case OP_Found: {        /* jump, in3 */
 		 * conflict
 		 */
 		for(ii=0; ii<pIdxKey->nField; ii++) {
-			if (pIdxKey->aMem[ii].flags & MEM_Null) {
+			if (mem_is_null(&pIdxKey->aMem[ii])) {
 				takeJump = 1;
 				break;
 			}
@@ -3860,14 +3809,14 @@ case OP_FCopy: {     /* out2 */
 		pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
 	}
 
-	if ((pOp->p3 & OPFLAG_NOOP_IF_NULL) && (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)) {
+	if ((pOp->p3 & OPFLAG_NOOP_IF_NULL) && mem_is_null(pIn1)) {
 		pOut = vdbe_prepare_null_out(p, pOp->p2);
 	} else {
 		assert(memIsValid(pIn1));
-		assert((pIn1->flags & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt)) != 0);
+		assert(mem_is_integer(pIn1));
 
 		pOut = vdbe_prepare_null_out(p, pOp->p2);
-		mem_set_int(pOut, pIn1->u.i, pIn1->flags == MEM_Int);
+		mem_set_int(pOut, pIn1->u.i, mem_is_neg_int(pIn1));
 		pOut->field_type = pIn1->field_type;
 	}
 	break;
@@ -3999,7 +3948,7 @@ case OP_SorterData: {
 	assert(isSorter(pC));
 	if (sqlVdbeSorterRowkey(pC, pOut) != 0)
 		goto abort_due_to_error;
-	assert(pOut->flags & MEM_Blob);
+	assert(mem_is_binary(pOut));
 	assert(pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor);
 	p->apCsr[pOp->p3]->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
 	break;
@@ -4357,7 +4306,7 @@ case OP_SorterInsert: {      /* in2 */
 	assert(cursor != NULL);
 	assert(isSorter(cursor));
 	pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
-	assert((pIn2->flags & MEM_Blob) != 0);
+	assert(mem_is_binary(pIn2));
 	if (ExpandBlob(pIn2) != 0 ||
 	    sqlVdbeSorterWrite(cursor, pIn2) != 0)
 		goto abort_due_to_error;
@@ -4391,7 +4340,7 @@ case OP_SorterInsert: {      /* in2 */
 case OP_IdxReplace:
 case OP_IdxInsert: {
 	pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-	assert((pIn2->flags & MEM_Blob) != 0);
+	assert(mem_is_binary(pIn2));
 	if (ExpandBlob(pIn2) != 0)
 		goto abort_due_to_error;
 	struct space *space;
@@ -4436,7 +4385,7 @@ case OP_IdxInsert: {
 	}
 	if ((pOp->p5 & OPFLAG_NCHANGE) != 0)
 		p->nChange++;
-	if (pOp->p3 > 0 && ((aMem[pOp->p3].flags) & MEM_Null) != 0) {
+	if (pOp->p3 > 0 && mem_is_null(&aMem[pOp->p3])) {
 		assert(space->sequence != NULL);
 		int64_t value;
 		if (sequence_get_value(space->sequence, &value) != 0)
@@ -4482,10 +4431,10 @@ case OP_Update: {
 	assert(pOp->p4type == P4_SPACEPTR);
 
 	struct Mem *key_mem = &aMem[pOp->p2];
-	assert((key_mem->flags & MEM_Blob) != 0);
+	assert(mem_is_binary(key_mem));
 
 	struct Mem *upd_fields_mem = &aMem[pOp->p3];
-	assert((upd_fields_mem->flags & MEM_Blob) != 0);
+	assert(mem_is_binary(upd_fields_mem));
 	uint32_t *upd_fields = (uint32_t *)upd_fields_mem->z;
 	uint32_t upd_fields_cnt = upd_fields_mem->n / sizeof(uint32_t);
 
@@ -4914,7 +4863,7 @@ case OP_Program: {        /* jump */
 	 * the trigger program. If this trigger has been fired before, then pRt
 	 * is already allocated. Otherwise, it must be initialized.
 	 */
-	if ((pRt->flags&MEM_Frame)==0) {
+	if (!mem_is_frame(pRt)) {
 		/* SubProgram.nMem is set to the number of memory cells used by the
 		 * program stored in SubProgram.aOp. As well as these, one memory
 		 * cell is required for each cursor used by the program. Set local
@@ -4930,9 +4879,7 @@ case OP_Program: {        /* jump */
 		if (!pFrame) {
 			goto no_mem;
 		}
-		sqlVdbeMemRelease(pRt);
-		pRt->flags = MEM_Frame;
-		pRt->u.pFrame = pFrame;
+		mem_set_frame(pRt, pFrame);
 
 		pFrame->v = p;
 		pFrame->nChildMem = nMem;
@@ -4948,7 +4895,7 @@ case OP_Program: {        /* jump */
 
 		pEnd = &VdbeFrameMem(pFrame)[pFrame->nChildMem];
 		for(pMem=VdbeFrameMem(pFrame); pMem!=pEnd; pMem++) {
-			pMem->flags = MEM_Undefined;
+			mem_set_undefined(pMem);
 			pMem->db = db;
 		}
 	} else {
@@ -5054,8 +5001,8 @@ case OP_FkIfZero: {         /* jump */
  */
 case OP_IfPos: {        /* jump, in1 */
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-	assert((pIn1->flags & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt)) != 0);
-	if ((pIn1->flags & MEM_UInt) != 0 && pIn1->u.u != 0) {
+	assert(mem_is_integer(pIn1));
+	if (mem_is_pos_int(pIn1) && pIn1->u.u != 0) {
 		assert(pOp->p3 >= 0);
 		uint64_t res = pIn1->u.u - (uint64_t) pOp->p3;
 		/*
@@ -5089,8 +5036,8 @@ case OP_OffsetLimit: {    /* in1, out2, in3 */
 	pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
 	pOut = vdbe_prepare_null_out(p, pOp->p2);
 
-	assert((pIn1->flags & MEM_UInt) != 0);
-	assert((pIn3->flags & MEM_UInt) != 0);
+	assert(mem_is_pos_int(pIn1));
+	assert(mem_is_pos_int(pIn3));
 	uint64_t x = pIn1->u.u;
 	uint64_t rhs = pIn3->u.u;
 	bool unused;
@@ -5113,7 +5060,7 @@ case OP_OffsetLimit: {    /* in1, out2, in3 */
  */
 case OP_IfNotZero: {        /* jump, in1 */
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-	assert((pIn1->flags & MEM_UInt) != 0);
+	assert(mem_is_pos_int(pIn1));
 	if (pIn1->u.u > 0) {
 		pIn1->u.u--;
 		goto jump_to_p2;
@@ -5129,7 +5076,7 @@ case OP_IfNotZero: {        /* jump, in1 */
  */
 case OP_DecrJumpZero: {      /* jump, in1 */
 	pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-	assert((pIn1->flags & MEM_UInt) != 0);
+	assert(mem_is_pos_int(pIn1));
 	if (pIn1->u.u > 0)
 		pIn1->u.u--;
 	if (pIn1->u.u == 0) goto jump_to_p2;
@@ -5215,7 +5162,7 @@ case OP_AggStep: {
 #endif
 
 	pMem->n++;
-	sqlVdbeMemInit(&t, db, MEM_Null);
+	mem_init(&t);
 	pCtx->pOut = &t;
 	pCtx->is_aborted = false;
 	pCtx->skipFlag = 0;
@@ -5226,7 +5173,7 @@ case OP_AggStep: {
 		sqlVdbeMemRelease(&t);
 		goto abort_due_to_error;
 	}
-	assert(t.flags==MEM_Null);
+	assert(mem_is_null(&t));
 	if (pCtx->skipFlag) {
 		assert(pOp[-1].opcode==OP_CollSeq);
 		i = pOp[-1].p1;
@@ -5252,7 +5199,7 @@ case OP_AggFinal: {
 	Mem *pMem;
 	assert(pOp->p1>0 && pOp->p1<=(p->nMem+1 - p->nCursor));
 	pMem = &aMem[pOp->p1];
-	assert((pMem->flags & ~(MEM_Null|MEM_Agg))==0);
+	assert(mem_is_null(pMem) || (pMem->flags & MEM_Agg) != 0);
 	if (sql_vdbemem_finalize(pMem, pOp->p4.func) != 0)
 		goto abort_due_to_error;
 	UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pMem);
@@ -5354,11 +5301,11 @@ case OP_Init: {          /* jump */
  */
 case OP_IncMaxid: {
 	assert(pOp->p1 > 0);
-	pOut = vdbe_prepare_null_out(p, pOp->p1);
-
-	if (tarantoolsqlIncrementMaxid(&pOut->u.u) != 0)
+	pOut = &p->aMem[pOp->p1];
+	uint64_t id;
+	if (tarantoolsqlIncrementMaxid(&id) != 0)
 		goto abort_due_to_error;
-	pOut->flags = MEM_UInt;
+	mem_set_u64(pOut, id);
 	break;
 }
 
@@ -5379,7 +5326,7 @@ case OP_SetSession: {
 	struct session_setting *setting = &session_settings[sid];
 	switch (setting->field_type) {
 	case FIELD_TYPE_BOOLEAN: {
-		if ((pIn1->flags & MEM_Bool) == 0)
+		if (!mem_is_bool(pIn1))
 			goto invalid_type;
 		bool value = pIn1->u.b;
 		size_t size = mp_sizeof_bool(value);
@@ -5390,7 +5337,7 @@ case OP_SetSession: {
 		break;
 	}
 	case FIELD_TYPE_STRING: {
-		if ((pIn1->flags & MEM_Str) == 0)
+		if (!mem_is_string(pIn1))
 			goto invalid_type;
 		const char *str = pIn1->z;
 		uint32_t size = mp_sizeof_str(pIn1->n);
diff --git a/src/box/sql/vdbeInt.h b/src/box/sql/vdbeInt.h
index 7205f1af3..3c4cf08fb 100644
--- a/src/box/sql/vdbeInt.h
+++ b/src/box/sql/vdbeInt.h
@@ -484,6 +484,30 @@ void sqlVdbeMemMove(Mem *, Mem *);
 int sqlVdbeMemNulTerminate(Mem *);
 int sqlVdbeMemSetStr(Mem *, const char *, int, u8, void (*)(void *));
 
+/**
+ * Initialize a new mem. After initializing the mem will hold a NULL value.
+ *
+ * @param mem VDBE memory register to initialize.
+ */
+void
+mem_init(struct Mem *mem);
+
+/**
+ * Set VDBE memory register as NULL.
+ *
+ * @param mem VDBE memory register to update.
+ */
+void
+mem_set_null(struct Mem *mem);
+
+/**
+ * Set VDBE memory register as Undefined. MEM is not cleared prior to that.
+ *
+ * @param mem VDBE memory register to update.
+ */
+void
+mem_set_undefined(struct Mem *mem);
+
 void
 mem_set_bool(struct Mem *mem, bool value);
 
@@ -495,6 +519,15 @@ mem_set_bool(struct Mem *mem, bool value);
 void
 mem_set_ptr(struct Mem *mem, void *ptr);
 
+/**
+ * Set VDBE memory register as frame.
+ *
+ * @param mem VDBE memory register to update.
+ * @param frame Frame to set.
+ */
+void
+mem_set_frame(struct Mem *mem, struct VdbeFrame *frame);
+
 /**
  * Set integer value. Depending on its sign MEM_Int (in case
  * of negative value) or MEM_UInt flag is set.
@@ -517,6 +550,177 @@ mem_set_int(struct Mem *mem, int64_t value, bool is_neg);
 void
 mem_set_double(struct Mem *mem, double value);
 
+/**
+ * Set VDBE memory register as string. If is_null_terminated is true then
+ * sizeof(value) should be len + 1, otherwise sizeof(value) == len. If
+ * alloc_type is either MEM_Static or MEM_Ephem, then no more allocation,
+ * deallocation, or copying is required. In case it is MEM_Dyn, no need to
+ * allocate and copy, but MEM should be freed each time MEM changes or
+ * destroyed. If it is 0, the entire string should be copied into newly
+ * allocated memory, which should be freed when the memory is destroyed.
+ * However, in this case, there is no need to free memory every time the MEM
+ * changes. It should be deallocated in case this MEM is set a new string or
+ * binary string with alloc_type 0.
+ *
+ * @param mem VDBE memory register to update.
+ * @param value String to set.
+ * @param len Length of the string.
+ * @param alloc_type Type of allocation of binary string.
+ * @param is_null_terminated True if string is NULL-terminated.
+ */
+int
+mem_set_str(struct Mem *mem, char *value, uint32_t len, int alloc_type,
+	    bool is_null_terminated);
+
+/**
+ * Set VDBE memory register as binary. If is_zero is true then binary received
+ * from this MEM may have length more than given size, however this is done
+ * outside of this MEM. If alloc_type is either MEM_Static or MEM_Ephem, then no
+ * more allocation, deallocation, or copying is required. In case it is MEM_Dyn,
+ * no need to allocate and copy, but MEM should be freed each time MEM changes
+ * or destroyed. If it is 0, the entire binary string should be copied into
+ * newly allocated memory, which should be freed when the memory is destroyed.
+ * However, in this case, there is no need to free memory every time the MEM
+ * changes. It should be deallocated in case this MEM is set a new string or
+ * binary string with alloc_type 0.
+ *
+ * @param mem VDBE memory register to update.
+ * @param value Binary string to set.
+ * @param len Length of the string.
+ * @param alloc_type Type of allocation of binary string.
+ * @param is_zero True if binary string may be expanded with zeroes at the end.
+ */
+int
+mem_set_bin(struct Mem *mem, char *value, uint32_t size, int alloc_type,
+	    bool is_zero);
+
+/**
+ * Set VDBE memory register as MAP. See @a mem_set_bin with is_zero = 0 for
+ * more.
+ *
+ * @param mem VDBE memory register to update.
+ * @param value Binary string that contains msgpack with type MP_MAP to set.
+ * @param len Length of the binary string.
+ * @param alloc_type Type of allocation of binary string.
+ */
+int
+mem_set_map(struct Mem *mem, char *value, uint32_t size, int alloc_type);
+
+/**
+ * Set VDBE memory register as ARRAY. See @a mem_set_bin with is_zero = 0 for
+ * more.
+ *
+ * @param mem VDBE memory register to update.
+ * @param value Binary string that contains msgpack with type MP_ARRAY to set.
+ * @param len Length of the binary string.
+ * @param alloc_type Type of allocation of binary string.
+ */
+int
+mem_set_array(struct Mem *mem, char *value, uint32_t size, int alloc_type);
+
+static inline bool
+mem_is_null(const struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	return (mem->flags & MEM_PURE_TYPE_MASK) == MEM_Null;
+}
+
+static inline bool
+mem_is_undefined(const struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	return mem->flags == MEM_Undefined;
+}
+
+static inline bool
+mem_is_frame(const struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	return mem->flags == MEM_Frame;
+}
+
+static inline bool
+mem_is_neg_int(const struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	return (mem->flags & MEM_PURE_TYPE_MASK) == MEM_Int;
+}
+
+static inline bool
+mem_is_pos_int(const struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	return (mem->flags & MEM_PURE_TYPE_MASK) == MEM_UInt;
+}
+
+static inline bool
+mem_is_integer(const struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	return mem_is_neg_int(mem) || mem_is_pos_int(mem);
+}
+
+static inline bool
+mem_is_double(const struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	return (mem->flags & MEM_PURE_TYPE_MASK) == MEM_Real;
+}
+
+static inline bool
+mem_is_number(const struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	return mem_is_integer(mem) || mem_is_double(mem);
+}
+
+static inline bool
+mem_is_string(const struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	return (mem->flags & MEM_PURE_TYPE_MASK) == MEM_Str;
+}
+
+static inline bool
+mem_is_binary(const struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	return (mem->flags & MEM_PURE_TYPE_MASK) == MEM_Blob;
+}
+
+static inline bool
+mem_is_varstring(const struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	return mem_is_string(mem) || mem_is_binary(mem);
+}
+
+static inline bool
+mem_is_map(const struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	return mem_is_binary(mem) && ((mem->flags & MEM_Subtype) != 0) &&
+	       mem->subtype == SQL_SUBTYPE_MSGPACK &&
+	       mp_typeof(*mem->z) == MP_MAP;
+}
+
+static inline bool
+mem_is_array(const struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	return mem_is_binary(mem) && ((mem->flags & MEM_Subtype) != 0) &&
+	       mem->subtype == SQL_SUBTYPE_MSGPACK &&
+	       mp_typeof(*mem->z) == MP_ARRAY;
+}
+
+static inline bool
+mem_is_bool(const struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	return (mem->flags & MEM_PURE_TYPE_MASK) == MEM_Bool;
+}
+
+static inline bool
+mems_have_same_type(const struct Mem *mem1, const struct Mem *mem2)
+{
+	return (mem1->flags & MEM_PURE_TYPE_MASK) ==
+	       (mem2->flags & MEM_PURE_TYPE_MASK);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Cast MEM to varbinary according to explicit cast rules.
+ *
+ * @param mem VDBE memory register to convert.
+ */
+int
+mem_convert_to_binary(struct Mem *mem);
+
 void sqlVdbeMemInit(Mem *, sql *, u32);
 void sqlVdbeMemSetNull(Mem *);
 void sqlVdbeMemSetZeroBlob(Mem *, int);
diff --git a/src/box/sql/vdbeapi.c b/src/box/sql/vdbeapi.c
index 7c59ef83f..22e87ec46 100644
--- a/src/box/sql/vdbeapi.c
+++ b/src/box/sql/vdbeapi.c
@@ -111,7 +111,7 @@ sql_clear_bindings(sql_stmt * pStmt)
 	Vdbe *p = (Vdbe *) pStmt;
 	for (i = 0; i < p->nVar; i++) {
 		sqlVdbeMemRelease(&p->aVar[i]);
-		p->aVar[i].flags = MEM_Null;
+		mem_set_null(&p->aVar[i]);
 	}
 	return rc;
 }
@@ -130,12 +130,12 @@ const void *
 sql_value_blob(sql_value * pVal)
 {
 	Mem *p = (Mem *) pVal;
-	if (p->flags & (MEM_Blob | MEM_Str)) {
+	if (mem_is_varstring(p)) {
 		if (ExpandBlob(p) != 0) {
-			assert(p->flags == MEM_Null && p->z == 0);
+			assert(mem_is_null(p) && p->z == NULL);
 			return 0;
 		}
-		p->flags |= MEM_Blob;
+		mem_convert_to_binary(p);
 		return p->n ? p->z : 0;
 	} else {
 		return sql_value_text(pVal);
@@ -232,7 +232,7 @@ sql_value_dup(const sql_value * pOrig)
 	memcpy(pNew, pOrig, MEMCELLSIZE);
 	pNew->flags &= ~MEM_Dyn;
 	pNew->db = 0;
-	if (pNew->flags & (MEM_Str | MEM_Blob)) {
+	if (mem_is_varstring(pNew)) {
 		pNew->flags &= ~(MEM_Static | MEM_Dyn);
 		pNew->flags |= MEM_Ephem;
 		if (sqlVdbeMemMakeWriteable(pNew) != 0) {
@@ -588,39 +588,17 @@ sql_data_count(sql_stmt * pStmt)
 static const Mem *
 columnNullValue(void)
 {
-	/* Even though the Mem structure contains an element
-	 * of type i64, on certain architectures (x86) with certain compiler
-	 * switches (-Os), gcc may align this Mem object on a 4-byte boundary
-	 * instead of an 8-byte one. This all works fine, except that when
-	 * running with SQL_DEBUG defined the sql code sometimes assert()s
-	 * that a Mem structure is located on an 8-byte boundary. To prevent
-	 * these assert()s from failing, when building with SQL_DEBUG defined
-	 * using gcc, we force nullMem to be 8-byte aligned using the magical
-	 * __attribute__((aligned(8))) macro.
-	 */
-	static const Mem nullMem
 #if defined(SQL_DEBUG) && defined(__GNUC__)
-	    __attribute__ ((aligned(8)))
-#endif
-	    = {
-		/* .u          = */  {
-		0},
-		    /* .flags      = */ (u16) MEM_Null,
-		    /* .eSubtype   = */ (u8) 0,
-		    /* .field_type = */ field_type_MAX,
-		    /* .n          = */ (int)0,
-		    /* .z          = */ (char *)0,
-		    /* .zMalloc    = */ (char *)0,
-		    /* .szMalloc   = */ (int)0,
-		    /* .uTemp      = */ (u32) 0,
-		    /* .db         = */ (sql *) 0,
-		    /* .xDel       = */ (void (*)(void *))0,
-#ifdef SQL_DEBUG
-		    /* .pScopyFrom = */ (Mem *) 0,
-		    /* .pFiller    = */ (void *)0,
+	static struct Mem nullMem __attribute__ ((aligned(8)));
+#else
+	static struct Mem nullMem;
 #endif
-	};
-	return &nullMem;
+	static struct Mem *null_mem_ptr = NULL;
+	if (null_mem_ptr == NULL) {
+		mem_init(&nullMem);
+		null_mem_ptr = &nullMem;
+	}
+	return null_mem_ptr;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -879,8 +857,7 @@ vdbeUnbind(Vdbe * p, int i)
 	i--;
 	pVar = &p->aVar[i];
 	sqlVdbeMemRelease(pVar);
-	pVar->flags = MEM_Null;
-	pVar->field_type = field_type_MAX;
+	mem_set_null(pVar);
 	return 0;
 }
 
diff --git a/src/box/sql/vdbeaux.c b/src/box/sql/vdbeaux.c
index 5c2706e49..02e8d90d7 100644
--- a/src/box/sql/vdbeaux.c
+++ b/src/box/sql/vdbeaux.c
@@ -1108,18 +1108,18 @@ displayP4(Op * pOp, char *zTemp, int nTemp)
 		}
 	case P4_MEM:{
 			Mem *pMem = pOp->p4.pMem;
-			if (pMem->flags & MEM_Str) {
+			if (mem_is_string(pMem)) {
 				zP4 = pMem->z;
-			} else if (pMem->flags & MEM_Int) {
+			} else if (mem_is_neg_int(pMem)) {
 				sqlXPrintf(&x, "%lld", pMem->u.i);
-			} else if (pMem->flags & MEM_UInt) {
+			} else if (mem_is_pos_int(pMem)) {
 				sqlXPrintf(&x, "%llu", pMem->u.u);
-			} else if (pMem->flags & MEM_Real) {
+			} else if (mem_is_double(pMem)) {
 				sqlXPrintf(&x, "%.16g", pMem->u.r);
-			} else if (pMem->flags & MEM_Null) {
+			} else if (mem_is_null(pMem)) {
 				zP4 = "NULL";
 			} else {
-				assert(pMem->flags & MEM_Blob);
+				assert(mem_is_binary(pMem));
 				zP4 = "(binary string)";
 			}
 			break;
@@ -1198,17 +1198,13 @@ sqlVdbePrintOp(FILE * pOut, int pc, Op * pOp)
  * Initialize an array of N Mem element.
  */
 static void
-initMemArray(Mem * p, int N, sql * db, u32 flags)
+initMemArray(Mem *p, int N, bool is_undefined)
 {
-	while ((N--) > 0) {
-		p->db = db;
-		p->flags = flags;
-		p->szMalloc = 0;
-		p->field_type = field_type_MAX;
-#ifdef SQL_DEBUG
-		p->pScopyFrom = 0;
-#endif
-		p++;
+	for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i) {
+		struct Mem *mem = &p[i];
+		mem_init(mem);
+		if (is_undefined)
+			mem_set_undefined(mem);
 	}
 }
 
@@ -1239,16 +1235,14 @@ releaseMemArray(Mem * p, int N)
 			 */
 			testcase(p->flags & MEM_Agg);
 			testcase(p->flags & MEM_Dyn);
-			testcase(p->flags & MEM_Frame);
-			if (p->
-			    flags & (MEM_Agg | MEM_Dyn | MEM_Frame)) {
+			if (p->flags & (MEM_Agg | MEM_Dyn) || mem_is_frame(p)) {
 				sqlVdbeMemRelease(p);
 			} else if (p->szMalloc) {
 				sqlDbFree(db, p->zMalloc);
 				p->szMalloc = 0;
 			}
 
-			p->flags = MEM_Undefined;
+			mem_set_undefined(p);
 		} while ((++p) < pEnd);
 	}
 }
@@ -1322,7 +1316,7 @@ sqlVdbeList(Vdbe * p)
 		 */
 		assert(p->nMem > 9);
 		pSub = &p->aMem[9];
-		if (pSub->flags & MEM_Blob) {
+		if (mem_is_binary(pSub)) {
 			/* On the first call to sql_step(), pSub will hold a NULL.  It is
 			 * initialized to a BLOB by the P4_SUBPROGRAM processing logic below
 			 */
@@ -1364,10 +1358,10 @@ sqlVdbeList(Vdbe * p)
 
 			pMem++;
 
-			pMem->flags = MEM_Static | MEM_Str | MEM_Term;
-			pMem->z = (char *)sqlOpcodeName(pOp->opcode);	/* Opcode */
+			char *str = (char *)sqlOpcodeName(pOp->opcode);
+			uint32_t len = strlen(str);
+			mem_set_str(pMem, str, len, MEM_Static, true);
 			assert(pMem->z != 0);
-			pMem->n = sqlStrlen30(pMem->z);
 			pMem++;
 
 			/* When an OP_Program opcode is encounter (the only opcode that has
@@ -1382,13 +1376,25 @@ sqlVdbeList(Vdbe * p)
 					if (apSub[j] == pOp->p4.pProgram)
 						break;
 				}
-				if (j == nSub &&
-				    sqlVdbeMemGrow(pSub, nByte,
-						   nSub != 0) == 0) {
-					apSub = (SubProgram **) pSub->z;
-					apSub[nSub++] = pOp->p4.pProgram;
-					pSub->flags |= MEM_Blob;
-					pSub->n = nSub * sizeof(SubProgram *);
+				if (j == nSub) {
+					size_t svp = region_used(&fiber()->gc);
+					struct SubProgram **buf = (SubProgram **)
+						region_aligned_alloc(&fiber()->gc,
+								     nByte,
+								     alignof(struct SubProgram));
+					if (buf == NULL) {
+						diag_set(OutOfMemory, nByte,
+							 "region_aligned_alloc",
+							 "buf");
+						p->is_aborted = true;
+						return -1;
+					}
+					if (nSub > 0)
+						memcpy(buf, pSub->z, pSub->n);
+					buf[nSub++] = pOp->p4.pProgram;
+					mem_set_bin(pSub, (char *)buf, nByte, 0,
+						    false);
+					region_truncate(&fiber()->gc, svp);
 				}
 			}
 		}
@@ -1402,41 +1408,39 @@ sqlVdbeList(Vdbe * p)
 		mem_set_i64(pMem, pOp->p3);
 		pMem++;
 
-		if (sqlVdbeMemClearAndResize(pMem, 256)) {
-			assert(p->db->mallocFailed);
+		size_t size = 256;
+		size_t svp = region_used(&fiber()->gc);
+		char *buf = (char *)region_alloc(&fiber()->gc, size);
+		if (buf == NULL) {
+			diag_set(OutOfMemory, size, "region_alloc", "buf");
+			p->is_aborted = true;
 			return -1;
 		}
-		pMem->flags = MEM_Str | MEM_Term;
-		zP4 = displayP4(pOp, pMem->z, pMem->szMalloc);
-
-		if (zP4 != pMem->z) {
-			pMem->n = 0;
-			sqlVdbeMemSetStr(pMem, zP4, -1, 1, 0);
-		} else {
-			assert(pMem->z != 0);
-			pMem->n = sqlStrlen30(pMem->z);
-		}
+		zP4 = displayP4(pOp, buf, size);
+		mem_set_str(pMem, zP4, strlen(zP4), 0, true);
+		region_truncate(&fiber()->gc, svp);
 		pMem++;
 
 		if (p->explain == 1) {
-			if (sqlVdbeMemClearAndResize(pMem, 4)) {
-				assert(p->db->mallocFailed);
-				return -1;
-			}
-			pMem->flags = MEM_Str | MEM_Term;
-			pMem->n = 2;
-			sql_snprintf(3, pMem->z, "%.2x", pOp->p5);	/* P5 */
+			char *str = (char *)tt_sprintf("%02hu", pOp->p5);
+			mem_set_str(pMem, str, strlen(str), 0, true);
 			pMem++;
 
 #ifdef SQL_ENABLE_EXPLAIN_COMMENTS
-			if (sqlVdbeMemClearAndResize(pMem, 500)) {
-				assert(p->db->mallocFailed);
+			size = 512;
+			svp = region_used(&fiber()->gc);
+			buf = (char *)region_alloc(&fiber()->gc, size);
+			if (buf == NULL) {
+				diag_set(OutOfMemory, size, "region_alloc",
+					 "buf");
+				p->is_aborted = true;
 				return -1;
 			}
-			pMem->flags = MEM_Str | MEM_Term;
-			pMem->n = displayComment(pOp, zP4, pMem->z, 500);
+			displayComment(pOp, zP4, buf, size);
+			mem_set_str(pMem, buf, strlen(buf), 0, true);
+			region_truncate(&fiber()->gc, svp);
 #else
-			pMem->flags = MEM_Null;	/* Comment */
+			mem_set_null(pMem);
 #endif
 		}
 
@@ -1658,9 +1662,9 @@ sqlVdbeMakeReady(Vdbe * p,	/* The VDBE */
 	} else {
 		p->nCursor = nCursor;
 		p->nVar = (ynVar) nVar;
-		initMemArray(p->aVar, nVar, db, MEM_Null);
+		initMemArray(p->aVar, nVar, false);
 		p->nMem = nMem;
-		initMemArray(p->aMem, nMem, db, MEM_Undefined);
+		initMemArray(p->aMem, nMem, true);
 		memset(p->apCsr, 0, nCursor * sizeof(VdbeCursor *));
 	}
 	sqlVdbeRewind(p);
@@ -1787,7 +1791,7 @@ Cleanup(Vdbe * p)
 			assert(p->apCsr[i] == 0);
 	if (p->aMem) {
 		for (i = 0; i < p->nMem; i++)
-			assert(p->aMem[i].flags == MEM_Undefined);
+			assert(mem_is_undefined(&p->aMem[i]));
 	}
 #endif
 
@@ -2330,7 +2334,7 @@ sqlVdbeAllocUnpackedRecord(struct sql *db, struct key_def *key_def)
 		return 0;
 	p->aMem = (Mem *) & ((char *)p)[ROUND8(sizeof(UnpackedRecord))];
 	for (uint32_t i = 0; i < key_def->part_count + 1; ++i)
-		sqlVdbeMemInit(&p->aMem[i], sql_get(), MEM_Null);
+		mem_init(&p->aMem[i]);
 	p->key_def = key_def;
 	p->nField = key_def->part_count + 1;
 	return p;
@@ -2418,80 +2422,72 @@ sqlBlobCompare(const Mem * pB1, const Mem * pB2)
 int
 sqlMemCompare(const Mem * pMem1, const Mem * pMem2, const struct coll * pColl)
 {
-	int f1, f2;
-	int combined_flags;
-
-	f1 = pMem1->flags;
-	f2 = pMem2->flags;
-	combined_flags = f1 | f2;
-
 	/* If one value is NULL, it is less than the other. If both values
 	 * are NULL, return 0.
 	 */
-	if (combined_flags & MEM_Null) {
-		return (f2 & MEM_Null) - (f1 & MEM_Null);
-	}
+	if (mem_is_null(pMem1) || mem_is_null(pMem2))
+		return (int)mem_is_null(pMem2) - (int)mem_is_null(pMem1);
 
-	if ((combined_flags & MEM_Bool) != 0) {
-		if ((f1 & f2 & MEM_Bool) != 0) {
+	if (mem_is_bool(pMem1) || mem_is_bool(pMem2)) {
+		if (mem_is_bool(pMem1) && mem_is_bool(pMem2)) {
 			if (pMem1->u.b == pMem2->u.b)
 				return 0;
 			if (pMem1->u.b)
 				return 1;
 			return -1;
 		}
-		if ((f2 & MEM_Bool) != 0)
+		if (mem_is_bool(pMem2))
 			return +1;
 		return -1;
 	}
 
 	/* At least one of the two values is a number
 	 */
-	if ((combined_flags & (MEM_Int | MEM_UInt | MEM_Real)) != 0) {
-		if ((f1 & f2 & MEM_Int) != 0) {
+	if (mem_is_number(pMem1) || mem_is_number(pMem2)) {
+		if (mem_is_neg_int(pMem1) && mem_is_neg_int(pMem2)) {
 			if (pMem1->u.i < pMem2->u.i)
 				return -1;
 			if (pMem1->u.i > pMem2->u.i)
 				return +1;
 			return 0;
 		}
-		if ((f1 & f2 & MEM_UInt) != 0) {
+		if (mem_is_pos_int(pMem1) && mem_is_pos_int(pMem2)) {
 			if (pMem1->u.u < pMem2->u.u)
 				return -1;
 			if (pMem1->u.u > pMem2->u.u)
 				return +1;
 			return 0;
 		}
-		if ((f1 & f2 & MEM_Real) != 0) {
+		if (mem_is_double(pMem1) && mem_is_double(pMem2)) {
 			if (pMem1->u.r < pMem2->u.r)
 				return -1;
 			if (pMem1->u.r > pMem2->u.r)
 				return +1;
 			return 0;
 		}
-		if ((f1 & MEM_Int) != 0) {
-			if ((f2 & MEM_Real) != 0) {
+		if (mem_is_neg_int(pMem1)) {
+			if (mem_is_double(pMem2)) {
 				return double_compare_nint64(pMem2->u.r,
 							     pMem1->u.i, -1);
 			} else {
 				return -1;
 			}
 		}
-		if ((f1 & MEM_UInt) != 0) {
-			if ((f2 & MEM_Real) != 0) {
+		if (mem_is_pos_int(pMem1)) {
+			if (mem_is_double(pMem2)) {
 				return double_compare_uint64(pMem2->u.r,
 							     pMem1->u.u, -1);
-			} else if ((f2 & MEM_Int) != 0) {
+			} else if (mem_is_neg_int(pMem2)) {
 				return +1;
 			} else {
 				return -1;
 			}
 		}
-		if ((f1 & MEM_Real) != 0) {
-			if ((f2 & MEM_Int) != 0) {
+		if (mem_is_double(pMem1)) {
+			if (mem_is_neg_int(pMem2)) {
 				return double_compare_nint64(pMem1->u.r,
 							     pMem2->u.i, 1);
-			} else if ((f2 & MEM_UInt) != 0) {
+			} else if (mem_is_pos_int(pMem2)) {
 				return double_compare_uint64(pMem1->u.r,
 							     pMem2->u.u, 1);
 			} else {
@@ -2504,11 +2500,11 @@ sqlMemCompare(const Mem * pMem1, const Mem * pMem2, const struct coll * pColl)
 	/* If one value is a string and the other is a blob, the string is less.
 	 * If both are strings, compare using the collating functions.
 	 */
-	if (combined_flags & MEM_Str) {
-		if ((f1 & MEM_Str) == 0) {
+	if (mem_is_string(pMem1) || mem_is_string(pMem2)) {
+		if (!mem_is_string(pMem1)) {
 			return 1;
 		}
-		if ((f2 & MEM_Str) == 0) {
+		if (!mem_is_string(pMem2)) {
 			return -1;
 		}
 		/* The collation sequence must be defined at this point, even if
@@ -2595,7 +2591,7 @@ sqlVdbeGetBoundValue(Vdbe * v, int iVar, u8 aff)
 	assert(iVar > 0);
 	if (v) {
 		Mem *pMem = &v->aVar[iVar - 1];
-		if (0 == (pMem->flags & MEM_Null)) {
+		if (!mem_is_null(pMem)) {
 			sql_value *pRet = sqlValueNew(v->db);
 			if (pRet) {
 				sqlVdbeMemCopy((Mem *) pRet, pMem);
@@ -2614,6 +2610,7 @@ sqlVdbeCompareMsgpack(const char **key1,
 	const char *aKey1 = *key1;
 	Mem *pKey2 = unpacked->aMem + key2_idx;
 	Mem mem1;
+	mem_init(&mem1);
 	int rc = 0;
 	switch (mp_typeof(*aKey1)) {
 	default:{
@@ -2622,35 +2619,35 @@ sqlVdbeCompareMsgpack(const char **key1,
 			break;
 		}
 	case MP_NIL:{
-			rc = -((pKey2->flags & MEM_Null) == 0);
+			rc = -(int)!mem_is_null(pKey2);
 			mp_decode_nil(&aKey1);
 			break;
 		}
 	case MP_BOOL:{
 			mem1.u.b = mp_decode_bool(&aKey1);
-			if ((pKey2->flags & MEM_Bool) != 0) {
+			if (mem_is_bool(pKey2)) {
 				if (mem1.u.b != pKey2->u.b)
 					rc = mem1.u.b ? 1 : -1;
 			} else {
-				rc = (pKey2->flags & MEM_Null) != 0 ? 1 : -1;
+				rc = mem_is_null(pKey2) ? 1 : -1;
 			}
 			break;
 		}
 	case MP_UINT:{
 			mem1.u.u = mp_decode_uint(&aKey1);
-			if ((pKey2->flags & MEM_Int) != 0) {
+			if (mem_is_neg_int(pKey2)) {
 				rc = +1;
-			} else if ((pKey2->flags & MEM_UInt) != 0) {
+			} else if (mem_is_pos_int(pKey2)) {
 				if (mem1.u.u < pKey2->u.u)
 					rc = -1;
 				else if (mem1.u.u > pKey2->u.u)
 					rc = +1;
-			} else if ((pKey2->flags & MEM_Real) != 0) {
+			} else if (mem_is_double(pKey2)) {
 				rc = double_compare_uint64(pKey2->u.r,
 							   mem1.u.u, -1);
-			} else if ((pKey2->flags & MEM_Null) != 0) {
+			} else if (mem_is_null(pKey2)) {
 				rc = 1;
-			} else if ((pKey2->flags & MEM_Bool) != 0) {
+			} else if (mem_is_bool(pKey2)) {
 				rc = 1;
 			} else {
 				rc = -1;
@@ -2659,20 +2656,20 @@ sqlVdbeCompareMsgpack(const char **key1,
 		}
 	case MP_INT:{
 			mem1.u.i = mp_decode_int(&aKey1);
-			if ((pKey2->flags & MEM_UInt) != 0) {
+			if (mem_is_pos_int(pKey2)) {
 				rc = -1;
-			} else if ((pKey2->flags & MEM_Int) != 0) {
+			} else if (mem_is_neg_int(pKey2)) {
 				if (mem1.u.i < pKey2->u.i) {
 					rc = -1;
 				} else if (mem1.u.i > pKey2->u.i) {
 					rc = +1;
 				}
-			} else if (pKey2->flags & MEM_Real) {
+			} else if (mem_is_double(pKey2)) {
 				rc = double_compare_nint64(pKey2->u.r, mem1.u.i,
 							   -1);
-			} else if ((pKey2->flags & MEM_Null) != 0) {
+			} else if (mem_is_null(pKey2)) {
 				rc = 1;
-			} else if ((pKey2->flags & MEM_Bool) != 0) {
+			} else if (mem_is_bool(pKey2)) {
 				rc = 1;
 			} else {
 				rc = -1;
@@ -2686,21 +2683,21 @@ sqlVdbeCompareMsgpack(const char **key1,
 	case MP_DOUBLE:{
 			mem1.u.r = mp_decode_double(&aKey1);
  do_float:
-			if ((pKey2->flags & MEM_Int) != 0) {
+			if (mem_is_neg_int(pKey2)) {
 				rc = double_compare_nint64(mem1.u.r, pKey2->u.i,
 							   1);
-			} else if (pKey2->flags & MEM_UInt) {
+			} else if (mem_is_pos_int(pKey2)) {
 				rc = double_compare_uint64(mem1.u.r,
 							   pKey2->u.u, 1);
-			} else if (pKey2->flags & MEM_Real) {
+			} else if (mem_is_double(pKey2)) {
 				if (mem1.u.r < pKey2->u.r) {
 					rc = -1;
 				} else if (mem1.u.r > pKey2->u.r) {
 					rc = +1;
 				}
-			} else if ((pKey2->flags & MEM_Null) != 0) {
+			} else if (mem_is_null(pKey2)) {
 				rc = 1;
-			} else if ((pKey2->flags & MEM_Bool) != 0) {
+			} else if (mem_is_bool(pKey2)) {
 				rc = 1;
 			} else {
 				rc = -1;
@@ -2708,31 +2705,35 @@ sqlVdbeCompareMsgpack(const char **key1,
 			break;
 		}
 	case MP_STR:{
-			if (pKey2->flags & MEM_Str) {
+			if (mem_is_string(pKey2)) {
 				struct key_def *key_def = unpacked->key_def;
-				mem1.n = mp_decode_strl(&aKey1);
-				mem1.z = (char *)aKey1;
-				aKey1 += mem1.n;
+				uint32_t size = mp_decode_strl(&aKey1);
+				char *val = (char *)aKey1;
+				aKey1 += size;
 				struct coll *coll =
 					key_def->parts[key2_idx].coll;
 				if (coll != NULL) {
-					mem1.flags = MEM_Str;
+					mem_set_str(&mem1, val, size, MEM_Ephem,
+						    false);
 					rc = vdbeCompareMemString(&mem1, pKey2,
 								  coll);
 				} else {
+					mem_set_bin(&mem1, val, size, MEM_Ephem,
+						    false);
 					goto do_bin_cmp;
 				}
 			} else {
-				rc = (pKey2->flags & MEM_Blob) ? -1 : +1;
+				rc = mem_is_binary(pKey2) ? -1 : +1;
 			}
 			break;
 		}
 	case MP_BIN:{
-			mem1.n = mp_decode_binl(&aKey1);
-			mem1.z = (char *)aKey1;
-			aKey1 += mem1.n;
+			uint32_t size = mp_decode_binl(&aKey1);
+			mem_set_bin(&mem1, (char *)aKey1, size, MEM_Ephem,
+				    false);
+			aKey1 += size;
  do_blob:
-			if (pKey2->flags & MEM_Blob) {
+			if (mem_is_binary(pKey2)) {
 				if (pKey2->flags & MEM_Zero) {
 					if (!isAllZero
 					    ((const char *)mem1.z, mem1.n)) {
@@ -2804,48 +2805,39 @@ vdbe_decode_msgpack_into_mem(const char *buf, struct Mem *mem, uint32_t *len)
 	}
 	case MP_NIL: {
 		mp_decode_nil(&buf);
-		mem->flags = MEM_Null;
+		mem_set_null(mem);
 		break;
 	}
 	case MP_BOOL: {
-		mem->u.b = mp_decode_bool(&buf);
-		mem->flags = MEM_Bool;
+		mem_set_bool(mem, mp_decode_bool(&buf));
 		break;
 	}
 	case MP_UINT: {
-		uint64_t v = mp_decode_uint(&buf);
-		mem->u.u = v;
-		mem->flags = MEM_UInt;
+		mem_set_u64(mem, mp_decode_uint(&buf));
 		break;
 	}
 	case MP_INT: {
-		mem->u.i = mp_decode_int(&buf);
-		mem->flags = MEM_Int;
+		mem_set_i64(mem, mp_decode_int(&buf));
 		break;
 	}
 	case MP_STR: {
-		/* XXX u32->int */
-		mem->n = (int) mp_decode_strl(&buf);
-		mem->flags = MEM_Str | MEM_Ephem;
-install_blob:
-		mem->z = (char *)buf;
-		buf += mem->n;
+		uint32_t len = mp_decode_strl(&buf);
+		mem_set_str(mem, (char *)buf, len, MEM_Ephem, false);
+		buf += len;
 		break;
 	}
 	case MP_BIN: {
-		/* XXX u32->int */
-		mem->n = (int) mp_decode_binl(&buf);
-		mem->flags = MEM_Blob | MEM_Ephem;
-		goto install_blob;
+		uint32_t size = mp_decode_binl(&buf);
+		mem_set_bin(mem, (char *)buf, size, MEM_Ephem, false);
+		buf += size;
+		break;
 	}
 	case MP_FLOAT: {
-		mem->u.r = mp_decode_float(&buf);
-		mem->flags = sqlIsNaN(mem->u.r) ? MEM_Null : MEM_Real;
+		mem_set_double(mem, mp_decode_float(&buf));
 		break;
 	}
 	case MP_DOUBLE: {
-		mem->u.r = mp_decode_double(&buf);
-		mem->flags = sqlIsNaN(mem->u.r) ? MEM_Null : MEM_Real;
+		mem_set_double(mem, mp_decode_double(&buf));
 		break;
 	}
 	}
@@ -2872,10 +2864,9 @@ sqlVdbeRecordUnpackMsgpack(struct key_def *key_def,	/* Information about the rec
 		vdbe_decode_msgpack_into_mem(zParse, pMem, &sz);
 		if (sz == 0) {
 			/* MsgPack array, map or ext. Treat as blob. */
-			pMem->z = (char *)zParse;
+			char *buf = (char *)zParse;
 			mp_next(&zParse);
-			pMem->n = zParse - pMem->z;
-			pMem->flags = MEM_Blob | MEM_Ephem;
+			mem_set_bin(pMem, buf, zParse - buf, MEM_Ephem, false);
 		} else {
 			zParse += sz;
 		}
diff --git a/src/box/sql/vdbemem.c b/src/box/sql/vdbemem.c
index 1101f7205..849d490b8 100644
--- a/src/box/sql/vdbemem.c
+++ b/src/box/sql/vdbemem.c
@@ -799,6 +799,29 @@ sqlValueSetNull(sql_value * p)
 	sqlVdbeMemSetNull((Mem *) p);
 }
 
+void
+mem_init(struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	memset(mem, 0, sizeof(*mem));
+	mem->db = sql_get();
+	mem->flags = MEM_Null;
+	mem->field_type = field_type_MAX;
+}
+
+void
+mem_set_null(struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	sqlVdbeMemSetNull(mem);
+	mem->field_type = field_type_MAX;
+}
+
+void
+mem_set_undefined(struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	mem->flags = MEM_Undefined;
+	mem->field_type = field_type_MAX;
+}
+
 void
 mem_set_ptr(struct Mem *mem, void *ptr)
 {
@@ -807,6 +830,15 @@ mem_set_ptr(struct Mem *mem, void *ptr)
 	mem->u.p = ptr;
 }
 
+void
+mem_set_frame(struct Mem *mem, struct VdbeFrame *frame)
+{
+	sqlVdbeMemSetNull(mem);
+	mem->u.pFrame = frame;
+	mem->flags = MEM_Frame;
+	mem->field_type = field_type_MAX;
+}
+
 /*
  * Delete any previous value and set the value to be a BLOB of length
  * n containing all zeros.
@@ -880,6 +912,90 @@ mem_set_double(struct Mem *mem, double value)
 	mem->field_type = FIELD_TYPE_DOUBLE;
 }
 
+int
+mem_set_str(struct Mem *mem, char *value, uint32_t len, int alloc_type,
+	    bool is_null_terminated)
+{
+	sqlVdbeMemSetNull(mem);
+	if (alloc_type != 0) {
+		mem->z = value;
+		if (alloc_type == MEM_Dyn)
+			mem->xDel = SQL_DYNAMIC;
+	} else {
+		uint32_t size = is_null_terminated ? len + 1 : len;
+		if (sqlVdbeMemClearAndResize(mem, size) != 0)
+			return -1;
+		memcpy(mem->z, value, size);
+	}
+	mem->n = len;
+	mem->flags = MEM_Str | alloc_type;
+	if (is_null_terminated)
+		mem->flags |= MEM_Term;
+	mem->field_type = FIELD_TYPE_STRING;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int
+mem_set_bin(struct Mem *mem, char *value, uint32_t size, int alloc_type,
+	    bool is_zero)
+{
+	sqlVdbeMemSetNull(mem);
+	if (alloc_type != 0) {
+		mem->z = value;
+		if (alloc_type == MEM_Dyn)
+			mem->xDel = SQL_DYNAMIC;
+	} else {
+		if (sqlVdbeMemClearAndResize(mem, size) != 0)
+			return -1;
+		memcpy(mem->z, value, size);
+	}
+	mem->n = size;
+	mem->flags = MEM_Blob | alloc_type;
+	if (is_zero)
+		mem->flags |= MEM_Zero;
+	mem->field_type = FIELD_TYPE_VARBINARY;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int
+mem_set_map(struct Mem *mem, char *value, uint32_t size, int alloc_type)
+{
+	assert(mp_typeof(*value) == MP_MAP);
+	if (mem_set_bin(mem, value, size, alloc_type, false) != 0)
+		return -1;
+	mem->subtype = SQL_SUBTYPE_MSGPACK;
+	mem->flags |= MEM_Subtype;
+	mem->field_type = FIELD_TYPE_MAP;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int
+mem_set_array(struct Mem *mem, char *value, uint32_t size, int alloc_type)
+{
+	assert(mp_typeof(*value) == MP_ARRAY);
+	if (mem_set_bin(mem, value, size, alloc_type, false) != 0)
+		return -1;
+	mem->subtype = SQL_SUBTYPE_MSGPACK;
+	mem->flags |= MEM_Subtype;
+	mem->field_type = FIELD_TYPE_ARRAY;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int
+mem_convert_to_binary(struct Mem *mem)
+{
+	if (mem_is_null(mem) || mem_is_binary(mem))
+		return 0;
+	if (mem_is_string(mem)) {
+		mem->flags = (mem->flags & (MEM_Dyn | MEM_Static | MEM_Ephem)) |
+			     MEM_Blob;
+		return 0;
+	}
+	diag_set(ClientError, ER_SQL_TYPE_MISMATCH, sql_value_to_diag_str(mem),
+		 "varbinary");
+	return -1;
+}
+
 /*
  * Return true if the Mem object contains a TEXT or BLOB that is
  * too large - whose size exceeds SQL_MAX_LENGTH.
diff --git a/src/box/sql/vdbesort.c b/src/box/sql/vdbesort.c
index a2d681255..46759e591 100644
--- a/src/box/sql/vdbesort.c
+++ b/src/box/sql/vdbesort.c
@@ -2163,13 +2163,8 @@ sqlVdbeSorterRowkey(const VdbeCursor * pCsr, Mem * pOut)
 	assert(pCsr->eCurType == CURTYPE_SORTER);
 	pSorter = pCsr->uc.pSorter;
 	pKey = vdbeSorterRowkey(pSorter, &nKey);
-	if (sqlVdbeMemClearAndResize(pOut, nKey)) {
+	if (mem_set_bin(pOut, pKey, nKey, 0, false) != 0)
 		return -1;
-	}
-	pOut->n = nKey;
-	MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Blob);
-	memcpy(pOut->z, pKey, nKey);
-
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -2217,7 +2212,7 @@ sqlVdbeSorterCompare(const VdbeCursor * pCsr,	/* Sorter cursor */
 	pKey = vdbeSorterRowkey(pSorter, &nKey);
 	sqlVdbeRecordUnpackMsgpack(pCsr->key_def, pKey, r2);
 	for (i = 0; i < nKeyCol; i++) {
-		if (r2->aMem[i].flags & MEM_Null) {
+		if (mem_is_null(&r2->aMem[i])) {
 			*pRes = -1;
 			return 0;
 		}
diff --git a/src/box/sql/vdbetrace.c b/src/box/sql/vdbetrace.c
index 2ee9f668c..175cbc0a6 100644
--- a/src/box/sql/vdbetrace.c
+++ b/src/box/sql/vdbetrace.c
@@ -147,15 +147,15 @@ sqlVdbeExpandSql(Vdbe * p,	/* The prepared statement being evaluated */
 			nextIndex = idx + 1;
 			assert(idx > 0 && idx <= p->nVar);
 			pVar = &p->aVar[idx - 1];
-			if (pVar->flags & MEM_Null) {
+			if (mem_is_null(pVar)) {
 				sqlStrAccumAppend(&out, "NULL", 4);
-			} else if (pVar->flags & MEM_Int) {
+			} else if (mem_is_neg_int(pVar)) {
 				sqlXPrintf(&out, "%lld", pVar->u.i);
-			} else if (pVar->flags & MEM_UInt) {
+			} else if (mem_is_pos_int(pVar)) {
 				sqlXPrintf(&out, "%llu", pVar->u.u);
-			} else if (pVar->flags & MEM_Real) {
+			} else if (mem_is_double(pVar)) {
 				sqlXPrintf(&out, "%!.15g", pVar->u.r);
-			} else if (pVar->flags & MEM_Str) {
+			} else if (mem_is_string(pVar)) {
 				int nOut;	/* Number of bytes of the string text to include in output */
 				nOut = pVar->n;
 				sqlXPrintf(&out, "'%.*q'", nOut, pVar->z);
@@ -164,7 +164,7 @@ sqlVdbeExpandSql(Vdbe * p,	/* The prepared statement being evaluated */
 					       pVar->u.nZero);
 			} else {
 				int nOut;	/* Number of bytes of the blob to include in output */
-				assert(pVar->flags & MEM_Blob);
+				assert(mem_is_binary(pVar));
 				sqlStrAccumAppend(&out, "x'", 2);
 				nOut = pVar->n;
 				for (i = 0; i < nOut; i++) {
-- 
2.25.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 3+ messages in thread

end of thread, other threads:[~2021-02-13 15:39 UTC | newest]

Thread overview: 3+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2021-02-13 15:38 [Tarantool-patches] [PATCH v2 0/2] Encapsulate MEM type changing and checking Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches
2021-02-13 15:38 ` [Tarantool-patches] [PATCH v2 1/2] sql: Initialize MEM in sqlVdbeAllocUnpackedRecord() Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches
2021-02-13 15:38 ` [Tarantool-patches] [PATCH v2 2/2] sql: encapsulate setting type checking of MEM Mergen Imeev via Tarantool-patches

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